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Domain I (DI) of beta-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) contains the immunodominant epitope for pathogenic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). DI is exposed in the linear form of the molecule but not in the circular form that comprises 90% of serum β2GPI. The majority of circulating β2GPI is biochemically reduced with two free thiols in Domain V. However, increased levels of oxidised β2GPI are found in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It is not known whether oxidation of β2GPI favours the linear form of the molecule and thus promotes development of anti-DI antibodies. We investigated whether the proportion of oxidised β2GPI associates with the presence of anti-DI in APS patients. Serum samples from 44 APS patients were screened for IgG, IgM and IgA anti-DI, anti-β2GPI, anti-cardiolipin (anti-CL) and biochemically reduced β2GPI. A negative correlation was found between the proportion of β2GPI in the biochemically reduced form and IgG anti-DI levels (r = -0.54, p = 0.0002), but not with IgM or IgA anti-DI. Moreover, the proportion of β2GPI in the reduced form was lower in IgG anti-DI positive than anti-DI negative APS patients (p = 0.02). The relative amount of reduced β2GPI was no different between patients who were positive or negative for IgG, IgM and IgA anti-β2GPI or anti-CL. This study demonstrates that oxidised β2GPI lacking free cysteine-thiol groups most closely associates with IgG anti-DI positivity compared to IgG anti-CL and anti-β2GPI. Future studies are required to ascertain the directionality of this association to define causation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
A homotypic protein interaction module of the death domain superfamily. It is composed of a bundle of six alpha-helices that is related in sequence and structure to the DEATH DOMAIN and DEATH EFFECTOR DOMAIN. The Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD domain) typically associates with other CARD-containing proteins, forming either dimers or trimers. CARD domains may occur in isolation, or in combination with other domains in CARD signaling adaptor proteins and initiator CASPASES that function in APOPTOSIS.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
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