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Parkinson's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease accompanied with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease can still be made only on the stage of irreversible and nearly total degeneration of the nigrostriatum dopaminergic system and exhaustion of brain compensatory mechanisms that explains the low efficacy of therapy. Ophthalmic pathology is one of the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This can be explained firstly by the fact that eye is a 'peripheral part of brain' and secondly by the involvement of dopaminergic neurons (dopamine-producing cells) that are subject to the selective degeneration during Parkinson's disease in the regulation of visual function in the eye and brain. Dopaminergic neurons and dopamine receptors are present in all structures of the eye. Parkinson's disease cause abnormalities not only in the retina but in the whole optic tract and can be considered as peripheral manifestations of the disease that precede the well-known motor dysfunctions. This review describes ophthalmological symptoms of Parkinson's disease, possible pathophysiological mechanisms of their development, optical disorders in experimental models of Parkinson's disease and also the perspectives of experimental and clinical studies of visual disorders for the development of preclinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova
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Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
Proteins associated with sporadic or familial cases of PARKINSON DISEASE.
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