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The ligand-binding βI and αI domains of integrin are the best-studied von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domains undergoing significant conformational changes for affinity regulation. In both βI and αI domains, the α1- and α7-helixes work in concert to shift the metal-ion-dependent-adhesion-site between the resting and active states. An absolutely conserved Gly in the middle of the α1-helix of βI helps maintain the resting βI conformation, while the homologous position in the αI α1-helix contains a conserved Phe. A functional role of this Phe is structurally unpredictable. Using αLβ2 integrin as a model, we found that the residue volume at the Phe position in the α1-helix is critical for αLβ2 activation since trimming the Phe by small amino acid substitutions abolished αLβ2 binding with soluble and immobilized intercellular-cell adhesion-molecule 1. Similar results were obtained for αMβ2 integrin. Our experimental and molecular dynamics simulation data suggested that the bulky Phe acts as a pawl that stabilizes the downward ratchet-like movement of β6-α7 loop and α7-helix, required for high-affinity ligand binding. This mechanism may apply to other VWA domains undergoing large conformational changes. We further demonstrated that the conformational crosstalk between αL αI and β2 βI could be uncoupled since the β2 extension and headpiece opening could occur independently of the αI activation. Reciprocally, the αI activation does not inevitably lead to the conformational changes of the β2 subunit. Such loose linkage between the αI and βI is attributed to the αI flexibility and could accommodate the αLβ2-mediated rolling adhesion of leukocytes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of biological chemistry
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An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
A family of proteins that share a domain with a four transmembrane-helix architecture referred to as the MARVEL domain. The MARVEL domain proteins play important role in vesicular trafficking and in the formation of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
A family of eukaryotic transcription factors that recognize and bind to a highly-conserved cis-regulatory sequence (X-box) within the promoter region of MHC CLASS II GENES. They contain a conserved winged-helix DNA binding domain and function as homo or heterodimers.
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