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Chalk teaching is widely used in the world due to low cost, especially in some developing countries. During teaching with chalks, a large amount of fine chalk dust is produced. Although exposure to chalk dust is associated with respiratory diseases, the mechanism underlying the correlation between chalk dust exposure and adverse effects has not fully been elucidated. In this study, inflammation and its signal pathway in rat lungs exposed to fine chalk dust were examined through histopathology analyses; pro-inflammatory gene transcription; and protein levels measured by HE staining, RT-PCR, and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that fine chalk dust increased neutrophils and up-regulated inflammatory gene mRNA levels (TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β1, iNOS, and ICAM-1), and oxidative stress marker (HO-1) level, leading to the increase of inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammatory injury on the lungs. These inflammation responses were mediated, at least in part, via p38 and extracellular regulated proteinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling mechanisms. In contrast, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) supplement significantly ameliorated these changes in inflammatory responses. Our results support the hypothesis that fine chalk dust can damage rat lungs and the NAC supplement may attenuate fine chalk dust-associated lung inflammation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science and pollution research international
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A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
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