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Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) constitute a novel class of biodegradable and inexpensive solvents. In this study, twenty choline chloride- and glycerol-based NADESs were prepared and investigated as washing agents in the removal of cadmium (Cd) from rice flour for the first time. Choline chloride-based NADESs demonstrated good Cd removal (51%-96%). A natural, biodegradable surfactant, saponin, was mixed with the NADESs to enhance their efficiency. No increase in Cd removal was observed when glycerol-based NADESs were combined with 1% saponin; however, synergistic effects between saponin and choline chloride-based NADESs were observed during the washing process and >99% Cd was removed using NADES-saponin mixtures. Moreover, NADESs washing process did not affect the main chemical components or structure of rice flour. The mechanism of Cd removal by NADESs and regeneration of Cd-contaminated NADESs were also explored. The study presents a green and efficient way of removing Cd from contaminated rice.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Food chemistry
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Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
The anamorphic form of the fungus MAGNAPORTHE GRISEA and the most important pathogen of rice worldwide. It causes rice blast which prevents maturation of the rice grains.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.