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Deriving reliable estimates of chemical emissions to the environment is a key challenge for impact and risk assessment methods and typically the associated uncertainty is not characterised. We have developed an approach to spatially quantify annual chemical emission loads to the aquatic environment together with their associated uncertainty using consumer survey data and publicly accessible and non-confidential data sources. The approach is applicable for chemicals widely used across a product sector. Product usage data from consumer survey studies in France, the Netherlands, South Korea and the USA were combined with information on typical product formulations, wastewater removal rates, and the spatial distribution of populations and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the four countries. Results are presented for three chemicals common to three types of personal care products (shampoo, conditioner, and bodywash) at WWTP and national levels. Uncertainty in WWTP-specific emission estimates was characterised with a 95% confidence interval and ranged up to a factor of 4.8 around the mean, mainly due to uncertainty associated with removal efficiency. Estimates of whole country product usage were comparable to total market estimates derived from sectorial market sales data with differences ranging from a factor 0.8 (for the Netherlands) to 5 (for the USA). The proposed approach is suitable where measured data on chemical emissions is missing and is applicable for use in risk assessments and chemical footprinting methods when applied to specific product categories.
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Chemicals in consumer products have become the focus of recent regulatory developments including California's Safer Consumer Products Act. However, quantifying the amount of chemicals released during ...
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has been around since it was created in 1972 through the Consumer Product Safety Act. Its purpose is to protect "against unreasonable risks of injuries asso...
As many people spend a large part of their life indoors, the quality of the indoor environment is important. Data on contaminants such as flame retardants, pesticides and plasticizers are available fo...
To assess the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), its co-occurrence with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.
A sub-catchment of the Haihe River basin goes through the Beijing-Tianjin region with a population of 26 million, therefore, the use and release of home and personal care product ingredients (HPCPs) t...
Background: - In a lifetime, a person may encounter tens of thousands of chemicals used as ingredients in the products they buy. It s not easy to measure them because the companies that...
Consumer preferences for POU technologies vary across consumers and products, and largely determine their adoption and subsequent usage. This is a marketing study that asks which products...
This randomized controlled trial is designed to determine the effect of suction drain usage on the reduction of postoperative swelling following total knee replacement. Furthermore, this s...
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the hypothesis that early removal of drain can reduce the incidence of intra-abdominal infection and pancreatic fistula after pancreatectomy compar...
To compare early drain removal versus output-based drain removal, assessing the following end-points: Clinical : risk of seroma and infection, woundhealing, duration of wound care and dra...
The sum total of measures taken and regulatory policies enacted to ensure the safe use of consumer products.
Advertising that directly targets consumers of certain products such as pharmaceuticals.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The Top 100 Pharmaceutical Companies
Top 10 biotech and pharmaceutical companies worldwide based on market value in 2015 2015 ranking of the global top 10 biotech and pharmaceutical companies based on revenue (in billion U.S. dollars) Johnson & Johnson, U.S. 74...