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Deriving reliable estimates of chemical emissions to the environment is a key challenge for impact and risk assessment methods and typically the associated uncertainty is not characterised. We have developed an approach to spatially quantify annual chemical emission loads to the aquatic environment together with their associated uncertainty using consumer survey data and publicly accessible and non-confidential data sources. The approach is applicable for chemicals widely used across a product sector. Product usage data from consumer survey studies in France, the Netherlands, South Korea and the USA were combined with information on typical product formulations, wastewater removal rates, and the spatial distribution of populations and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the four countries. Results are presented for three chemicals common to three types of personal care products (shampoo, conditioner, and bodywash) at WWTP and national levels. Uncertainty in WWTP-specific emission estimates was characterised with a 95% confidence interval and ranged up to a factor of 4.8 around the mean, mainly due to uncertainty associated with removal efficiency. Estimates of whole country product usage were comparable to total market estimates derived from sectorial market sales data with differences ranging from a factor 0.8 (for the Netherlands) to 5 (for the USA). The proposed approach is suitable where measured data on chemical emissions is missing and is applicable for use in risk assessments and chemical footprinting methods when applied to specific product categories.
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The importance of postoperative drain fixation cannot be overemphasised. There are numerous described techniques for drain fixation. However, to our knowledge, there is no evidence-based comparison be...
Laboratory emissions testing of electronic cigarettes continues to be a focus in the tobacco research community. In particular, to inform policy regarding appropriate test protocols to regulate the ma...
A sub-catchment of the Haihe River basin goes through the Beijing-Tianjin region with a population of 26 million, therefore, the use and release of home and personal care product ingredients (HPCPs) t...
In order to limit ammonia (NH) emissions from pig farms, various air cleaning solutions are widely applied. However, the literature data report that these systems (chemical scrubbers, bioscrubbers and...
To evaluate in vitro enamel sample discoloration following exposure to a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) or emissions from next generation tobacco and nicotine products (NGPs) such as electronic...
Background: - In a lifetime, a person may encounter tens of thousands of chemicals used as ingredients in the products they buy. It s not easy to measure them because the companies that...
Consumer preferences for POU technologies vary across consumers and products, and largely determine their adoption and subsequent usage. This is a marketing study that asks which products...
This randomized controlled trial is designed to determine the effect of suction drain usage on the reduction of postoperative swelling following total knee replacement. Furthermore, this s...
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the hypothesis that early removal of drain can reduce the incidence of intra-abdominal infection and pancreatic fistula after pancreatectomy compar...
To compare early drain removal versus output-based drain removal, assessing the following end-points: Clinical : risk of seroma and infection, woundhealing, duration of wound care and dra...
The sum total of measures taken and regulatory policies enacted to ensure the safe use of consumer products.
Advertising that directly targets consumers of certain products such as pharmaceuticals.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
The field devoted in Informatics from multiple consumer or patient views.
The Top 100 Pharmaceutical Companies
Top 10 biotech and pharmaceutical companies worldwide based on market value in 2015 2015 ranking of the global top 10 biotech and pharmaceutical companies based on revenue (in billion U.S. dollars) Johnson & Johnson, U.S. 74...