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It has been unclear whether an associations of child ADHD with socio-economic disadvantage (SES) could be accounted for by (a) parental ADHD explaining both low SES and child ADHD, and/or (b) the joint overlap of ODD or CD with low SES and ADHD. Study 1 used a community-recruited case-control sample with detailed evaluation of SES indicators, child ADHD, child externalizing, and parent ADHD symptoms (n = 931 children, 521 ADHD, 577 boys, 354 girls) in a path modeling analysis with latent variables. Study 2 evaluated ADHD and externalizing behavior in a regression model using a poverty index for SES, in 70,927 children (48.2% female) aged 5-17 years from the US 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). In Study 1, lower SES was related to the ADHD latent variable, β = -.18, p < .001; 95%CI [-.25,-.12]. This effect held when parent ADHD and child ODD and CD were in the model, β = -.11, p < .01, 95% CI [-.09,-.03], equivalent to OR = 1.50, 95% CI[1.12-2.04]). In Study 2, these results replicated. Adjusting only for age and sex, children from families who were below 200% of the federal poverty line were more likely to have moderate or severe ADHD than no ADHD, versus children above that line, OR = 2.13, 95% CI[1.79,2.54], p < .001. The effect held after adjusting for disruptive/externalizing problems, OR = 1.61, p < .01, 95%CI [1.32,1.96]. The effect size for comparable models was similar across both studies, lending higher confidence to the results. It is concluded that the SES association with child ADHD is not explained by artifact and requires a mechanistic explanation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of abnormal child psychology
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The psychiatric, sociological and psychological study and treatment of the developing child with emphasis on preventive or prophylactic measures focused on the familial, educational and socio-environmental milieu of the child.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
An international organization whose mission is to stimulate world trade and economic progress by offering a forum where governments can collectively develop and refine social and economic policies.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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