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Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens. Vaccines against bacterial pathogens can reduce coinfection incidence and severity, but few vaccines are available and those that are, may have decreased efficacy in influenza virus-infected hosts. While some studies indicate a benefit of vaccine-induced immunity in providing protection against SBIs, a comprehensive understanding is lacking. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of viral and bacterial vaccine availability, the generation of protective immunity from these vaccines, and the effectiveness in limiting influenza-associated bacterial infections.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Viral immunology
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Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed or attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
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