Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Background -Type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury are common in clinical practice, but long-term consequences are uncertain. We aimed to define long-term outcomes and explore risk stratification in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury. Methods -We identified consecutive patients (n=2,122) with elevated cardiac troponin I concentrations (≥0.05 μg/L) at a tertiary cardiac center. All diagnoses were adjudicated as per the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. The primary outcome was all-cause death. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; non-fatal myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death) and non-cardiovascular death. To explore competing risks, cause-specific hazard ratios were obtained using Cox regression models. Results -The adjudicated index diagnosis was type 1 or type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury in 1,171 (55.2%), 429 (20.2%) and 522 (24.6%) patients, respectively. At five years, all-cause death rates were higher in those with type 2 myocardial infarction (62.5%) or myocardial injury (72.4%) compared with type 1 myocardial infarction (36.7%). The majority of excess deaths in those with type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury were due to non-cardiovascular causes (HR 2.32, 95%CI 1.92-2.81, versus type 1 myocardial infarction). Despite this, the observed crude MACE rates were similar between groups (30.6% versus 32.6%), with differences apparent after adjustment for co-variates (HR 0.82, 95%CI 0.69-0.96). Coronary heart disease was an independent predictor of MACE in those with type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury (HR 1.71, 95%CI 1.31-2.24). Conclusions -Despite an excess in non-cardiovascular death, patients with type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury have a similar crude rate of major adverse cardiovascular events to those with type 1 myocardial infarction. Identifying underlying coronary heart disease in this vulnerable population may help target therapies that could modify future risk.
This article was published in the following journal.
There is limited information about the long-term survival of older patients after myocardial infarction (MI).
Despite the decreasing incidence rate of acute coronary syndromes worldwide, the incidence of NSTEMI (Non- ST elevation myocardial infarction) has increased relative to STEMI (ST elevation myocardial ...
Unrecognized myocardial infarctions (UMIs) are common. The study is an extension of a previous study, aiming to investigate the long-term (>5 year) prognostic implication of late gadolinium enhancemen...
Hypothyroidism has been known to be associated with hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Elevation of thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) is a gold standard to detect these condi...
Microvascular dysfunction determines infarct characteristics in patients with reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: The MICROcirculation in Acute Myocardial Infarction (MICRO-AMI) study.
In patients with reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) both invasive and non-invasive assessments of microvascular dysfunction, the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), and micr...
Long-term beta-blocker therapy has not been investigated in contemporary randomized clinical trials in patients with myocardial infarction and normal heart function. The aim of this study ...
Myocardial injury is common in patients without acute coronary syndrome, and therefore international guidelines propose a classification of patients with myocardial infarction by aetiology...
Diabetes is key risk factor for death following acute myocardial infarction. However, the long-term excess risk of death associated with diabetes following acute myocardial infarction not ...
Available data from randomized trials on thrombectomy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction have shown favourable trends on myocardial reperfusion. Better myocardial reperfus...
Myocardial infarction and subsequent myocardial injury after cardiac surgery occurs in 7-15% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with an increased length of stay, and ...
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.
A myocardial infarction that does not produce elevations in the ST segments of the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM. ST segment elevation of the ECG is often used in determining the treatment protocol (see also ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction).
A clinical syndrome defined by MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA symptoms; persistent elevation in the ST segments of the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM; and release of BIOMARKERS of myocardial NECROSIS (e.g., elevated TROPONIN levels). ST segment elevation in the ECG is often used in determining the treatment protocol (see also NON-ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.
A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...