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Purpose To establish, in a large cohort, the diagnostic performance of a staged algorithm involving ultrasonography (US) followed by conditional unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the imaging work-up of pediatric appendicitis. Materials and Methods A staged imaging algorithm in which US and unenhanced MR imaging were performed in pediatric patients suspected of having appendicitis was implemented at the authors' institution on January 1, 2011, with US as the initial modality followed by unenhanced MR imaging when US findings were equivocal. A search of the radiology database revealed 2180 pediatric patients who had undergone imaging for suspected appendicitis from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2012. Of the 2180 patients, 1982 (90.9%) were evaluated according to the algorithm. The authors reviewed the electronic medical records and imaging reports for all patients. Imaging reports were reviewed and classified as positive, negative, or equivocal for appendicitis and correlated with surgical and pathology reports. Results The frequency of appendicitis was 20.5% (407 of 1982 patients). US alone was performed in 1905 of the 1982 patients (96.1%), yielding a sensitivity of 98.7% (386 of 391 patients) and specificity of 97.1% (1470 of 1514 patients) for appendicitis. Seventy-seven patients underwent unenhanced MR imaging after equivocal US findings, yielding an overall algorithm sensitivity of 98.2% (400 of 407 patients) and specificity of 97.1% (1530 of 1575 patients). Seven of the 1982 patients (0.4%) had false-negative results with the staged algorithm. The negative predictive value of the staged algorithm was 99.5% (1530 of 1537 patients). Conclusion A staged algorithm of US and unenhanced MR imaging for pediatric appendicitis appears to be effective. The results of this study demonstrate that this staged algorithm is 98.2% sensitive and 97.1% specific for the diagnosis of appendicitis in pediatric patients. (©) RSNA, 2017.
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The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; fluorescence imaging; and MICROSCOPY.
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Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...