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Xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme widely distributed among mammalian tissues, is associated with the oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine to form uric acid. Reactive oxygen species are also released during this process, leading to oxidative damages and to the pathology called gout. Available treatments mainly based on allopurinol cause serious side effects. Natural products such as flavonoids may represent an alternative. Thus, a series of polymethoxyflavones isolated and hemisynthesized from the bud exudates of Gardenia oudiepe has been evaluated for in vitro XO inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were more active than the reference inhibitor, Allopurinol (IC50 = 0.25 ± 0.004 μM) with IC50 values of (0.004 ± 0.001) μM, (0.05 ± 0.01) μM and (0.09 ± 0.003) μM, respectively. Structure-activity relationships were established. Additionally, a molecular docking study using MOE™ tool was carried out to establish the binding mode of the most active flavones with the enzyme, showing important interactions with its catalytic residues. These promising results, suggest the use of these compounds as potential leads for the design and development of novel XO inhibitors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of medicinal chemistry
The inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) is a combination of uric acid formation inhibition and superoxide anion (O) generation suppression. The inhibition of uric acid formation by XO is usef...
Xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative reaction of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid, is a key enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, for the purpose of d...
5-Aryl-1H-tetrazoles (1-24) were synthesized and screened for their xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity using allopurinol as standard inhibitor (IC = 2.0 ± 0.01 µM). Six compounds 3,...
A series of 2-mercapto-6-phenylpyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives (7a‒c, 8a‒e, 9a‒e and 10a‒e) as novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors were designed based on molecular docking, and synthesi...
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Our recent data in mice have demonstrated a key role of xanthine oxidase in hyperglycemia-induced by Reactive oxygen species production, and a preventive role of allopurinol (inhibitor of ...
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An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
A thiazole derivative and inhibitor of XANTHINE OXIDASE that is used for the treatment of HYPERURICEMIA in patients with chronic GOUT.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
According to the National Arthritis Data Workgroup, an estimated 6 million people in the United States report having experienced gout at some point in their lives. In fact, gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis in men over the age of 40....
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...