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Cancers attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) place a huge burden on the health of both men and women. The current commercial vaccines are genotype specific and provide little therapeutic benefit to patients with existing HPV infections. Identifying the conformational epitopes on the virus capsid supports the development of improved recombinant vaccines to maximize long-term protection against multiple types of HPV. Fragments of antibody (Fab) digested from the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies H16.V5 (V5) and H16.U4 (U4) were bound to HPV16 capsids and the structures of the two virus-Fab complexes were solved to near atomic resolution using cryo-electron microscopy. The structures reveal virus conformational changes, the Fab-binding mode to the capsid, the residues comprising the epitope and indicate a potential interaction of U4 with the minor structural protein, L2. Competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed V5 outcompetes U4 when added sequentially, demonstrating a steric interference even though the footprints do not overlap. Combined with our previously reported immunological and structural results, we propose that the virus may initiate host entry through an interaction between the icosahedral five-fold vertex of the capsid and receptors on the host cell. The highly detailed epitopes identified for the two antibodies provide a framework for continuing biochemical, genetic and biophysical studies.
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Hemolysin E (HlyE) is an immunogenic novel pore-forming toxin involved in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Thus, mapping of B-cell epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is critic...
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is highly lethal and results in severe febrile bleeding disorders that affect humans and non-human primates. One of the therapeutic approaches for treating EBOV infection ...
Human norovirus is a significant public health burden with >30 genotypes causing endemic levels of disease and strains from the GII.4 genotype causing serial pandemics as the virus evolves new ligand ...
The anti-MOG antibody is an autoantibody that induces inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system in diseases such as optic neuritis, encephalitis, and myelitis. The recent develo...
Antibodies have become an indispensable tool for many biotechnological and clinical applications. They bind their molecular target (antigen) by recognizing a portion of its structure (epitope) in a hi...
To determine the safety of immunization with HIV-1 C4-V3 polyvalent peptide vaccine in HIV-infected persons. To determine the proportion of study participants immunized who develop new spe...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the structure and function of the human retina can be studied with high resolution in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using ...
To determine if high resolution MRI can detect early invasion of cartilage by laryngeal carcinoma, and to determine if high resolution MRI may be superior to conventional MRI imaging or CT...
The aim of the study is to assess the correlation between airflow limitation, perception of dyspnea and functional capacity with anatomic changes in pulmonary structure as seen on High Res...
Multicentric epidemiological non-comparative study in France characterising evolution of anal Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related lesions and evaluating markers associated wit...
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding, but may not present until later stages of the cancer. Cervical cancer can be treated using surgery (including local excision) in early stages...