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Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS) with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly. There was incomplete dominant inheritance in the F1 and F1' progenies, based on dominance values of 0.77 and 0.75, respectively. A monogenic inheritance model revealed that imidacloprid resistance is governed by more than one factor. Compared to the field strain (CFD), the N-IRS strain developed more cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr and no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid, but showed negative cross-resistance to beta-cypermethrin and azamethiphos. Three synergists, diethyl malate (DEM), s,s,s-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), showed significant synergism against to imidacloprid (4.55-, 4.46- and 3.34-fold respectively) in the N-IRS strain. However, both DEM and PBO had no synergism and DEF only exhibited slight synergism in the CSS strain. The activities of carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 in the N-IRS strain were significantly higher than in the CSS strain. But similar synergistic potential of DEF to imidacloprid between the CSS and N-IRS strain suggested that GSTs and cytochrome P450 played much more important role than esterase for the N-IRS strain resistance to imidacloprid. These results should be helpful for developing an improved management strategy to delay the development of imidacloprid resistance in house fly.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.