Advertisement

Topics

Claude Bernard and nicotinic receptors: from the neuromuscular junction to tobacco weaning.

07:00 EST 1st January 2017 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Claude Bernard and nicotinic receptors: from the neuromuscular junction to tobacco weaning."

Claude Bernard (1813-1878) was fascinated by the pharmacological mechanisms of poisons. In particular, using a huge amount of ingenious and robust experiments, he demonstrated the peripheral toxic action of the natural compound curare. His work generated controversies in a period where scientific methodology and technical development followed the progression of concepts and ideas. From his intense debates with Albert Vulpian emerged the location of curare's toxicity at the neuromuscular junction. These two fascinating scientists could not imagine how important were these discoveries which allowed John Langley to propose the concept of receptor early in the 20th century. At the same time, the German immunologist Paul Ehrlich suggested that these receptors could be targeted by so-called "magic bullets", i.e., drugs that act on receptors, in order to treat patients. The molecular substrate of curare's activity was identified many years later as the nicotinic receptor of the motor end-plate. We now have curare molecules belonging to various chemical families that block receptors during anaesthesia. Suggamadex is the antidote for two of them, a drug that Claude Bernard perhaps dreamt of. We also have the recently marketed varenicline that acts as a partial agonist of nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system to treat patients from tobacco addiction. This rich story shows that biomedical research needs collaborations, imagination, perspicacity but also all results that it can have many years later, therefore challenging researchers about consequences of their discoveries.

Affiliation

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Biologie aujourd'hui
ISSN: 2105-0686
Pages: 169-172

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [4434 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Prediction of organophosphorus insecticide-induced intermediate syndrome with stimulated concentric needle single fibre electromyography.

Deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) using organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are a common clinical problem in Asia. OPs inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), leading to over-activity of muscarinic and ni...

Persistent attenuation of nicotine self-administration in rats by co-administration of chronic nicotine infusion with the dopamine D receptor antagonist SCH-23390 or the serotonin 5-HT agonist lorcaserin.

Tobacco addiction each year causes millions of deaths worldwide. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to be central to tobacco addiction. Nicotine replacement therapy aids tobacco c...

Nicotinic receptor abnormalities as a biomarker in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

Mutations of cholinergic neuronal nicotinic receptors have been identified in the autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), associated with changes on PET images using [F]-F-85380-A...

Decreased Cannabinoid CB Receptors in Male Tobacco Smokers Examined With Positron Emission Tomography.

Previous studies showed reduction of brain cannabinoid CB receptors in adults with cannabis and alcohol use disorders. Preclinical data suggest that these receptors also contribute to nicotine reward ...

Calcium Influx and Release Cooperatively Regulate AChR Patterning and Motor Axon Outgrowth during Neuromuscular Junction Formation.

Formation of synapses between motor neurons and muscles is initiated by clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in the center of muscle fibers prior to nerve arrival. This AChR patterning is con...

Clinical Trials [2143 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

PET Study of the Nicotinic Receptors in Human

The purpose of this study is to quantify the brain distribution of the nicotinic receptors in human volunteers and their alterations in patients suffering from neurological diseases such a...

The Neuromuscular Effect of Rocuronium in Patient

Rocuronium block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles. There have been several studies reported positive relationshi...

PET Imaging of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

Background: - Central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the primary target for the action of nicotine. In addition to being involved in tobacco dependence, they are also invo...

Motor Imagery for Reach-to-grasp Rehabilitation After Tetraplegia

Single center, pilot study, to evaluate the influence of Motor Imagery (MI) on functional rehabilitation and cerebral plasticity through the qualitative and quantitative mental practice ap...

the Efficacy and Safety of Sugammadex in Children 0-2 Years Old

Sugammadex is a selective antidote to muscle relaxants rocuronium bromide and vecuronium bromide. Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, a compound that selectively binds rocuronium ...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.

A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction. (From Arch Neurol 1999 Feb;56(2):163-7)

Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.

A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.

A curare alkaloid that is a very potent competitive nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction.

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Drug Discovery
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...

Public Health
Alternative Medicine Cleft Palate Complementary & Alternative Medicine Congenital Diseases Dentistry Ear Nose & Throat Food Safety Geriatrics Healthcare Hearing Medical Devices MRSA Muscular Dyst...


Searches Linking to this Article