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Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6) µmol/L) compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2) µmol/L, p = 0.003). Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13-15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study.
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The immune cellular composition of amniotic fluid is poorly understood. Herein, we determined: 1) the immunophenotype of amniotic fluid immune cells during the second and third trimester in the absenc...
Cervical insufficiency is a precursor of preterm birth. Treatment with emergency cervical cerclage is contraindicated in the presence of intra-amniotic infection. Detecting infection with Gram stain a...
The objective of this study was to determine the concentration and the reference ranges of essential and toxic elements in amniotic fluid (AF) and maternal serum (MS) at birth. This study was conducte...
Preterm birth (PTB), accompanied by low birth weight (LBW) or not, is a syndrome with tremendous risk factors and long-term health consequences for children. In recent decades, overwhelming studies ha...
The purpose of this study was to investigate when in pregnancy to stop the administration of low dose aspirin (150 mg/daily) so as to prevent fetal growth restriction (FGR) A randomised, placebo-contr...
The purpose of this research study is to determine if a vaginal fluid (VF) test can predict very early preterm birth in patients who are scheduled to have an exam indicated cerclage for se...
Amniotic fluid (AF) is a complex structure with a changing content by gestational time. AF pH can be affected by both maternal and fetal conditions such as preterm ruptures of membranes, p...
Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare devastating thromboembolic event, which is probably caused by the entrance of amniotic fluid (AF) to the maternal circulation. While AF contains coagulati...
Amniotic fluid plays a significant role in fetal gut maturation and development. The human fetus swallows over 200 ml of amniotic fluid per kilogram of weight each day and such swallowing ...
Hypothesis: Gastroschisis is a localised disruption of the abdominal layer. It occurs early in gestation, and the bowel is therefore bathing in the amniotic fluid and can be constricted at...
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
Round-shaped structure usually located in the upper fundus of the UTERUS in early pregnancy. It comprises EMBRYO; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and YOLK SAC. It is visible in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY by the fifth week of pregnancy. Its size is often used to determine and monitor GESTATIONAL AGE; FETAL GROWTH; and PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...
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