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Recently, the expression of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been shown to be essential for activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/SMAD-mediated signaling and cell migration by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. However, it is not known whether activation of non-SMAD TGF-β signaling (e.g., RAS-RAF-MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling) is required for cell migration and whether it is also dependent on PAR2.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of molecular sciences
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is expressed by different cell types in the lungs and can mediate i...
Recently, we showed that pancreatitis in the context of profound β-cell deficiency was sufficient to induce islet cell transdifferentiation. In some circumstances, this effect was sufficient to resul...
Although inflammation, oxidative stress, and protease-antiprotease imbalance have been referred to as a pathogenic triad in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), little is known about how they...
We studied the pronociceptive role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in mouse bladder. In female mice, intravesical infusion of the PAR2-activating peptide, SLIGRL-amide (SL), caused delayed m...
Cell invasion is attributed to the synthesis and secretion of proteolytically active matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) by tumor cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and promote metastasis. The r...
Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction affects up to 50% of medical and surgical critically ill children. GI dysfunction, specifically gastric dysmotility and loss of epithelial barrier integri...
Traditionally known for their role in haemostasis, platelets have also an immune role. Platelets play a key role in immune mediator secretion, and interact with innate and adaptive immune...
There is a clear need for a novel method that can readily assess gastric motility in daily clinical practice. Isometric determination of the stomach motility would avoid the use of a large...
To determine whether contraction abnormalities in the esophagus plays a role in gastroesophageal reflux induced cough, and thus cough severity in patients with chronic cough.
Immotile sperm is a rather frequent problem encountered in IVF patients. Treatment is usually based on inducing motility with pentoxyphylline (PXN) followed by ICSI. However, fertilization...
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.
A B7 antigen subtype that inhibits the costimulation of T-cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production and development of cytotoxicity. The over expression of this protein in a variety of tumor cell types suggests its role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activa
A protein cytokine secreted by tumor cells. It elicits increases in cell motility and phosphoinositide metabolism in the secreting cell via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein signal transduction pathway. It is closely related to PHOSPHOHEXOSE ISOMERASE; NEUROLEUKIN; and maturation factor.