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During the past 30 years my laboratory has generated 40+ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to structural and conformational epitopes on human ACE as well as ACE from rats, mice and other species. These mAbs were successfully used for detection and quantification of ACE by ELISA, Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In all these applications mainly single mAbs were used. We hypothesized that we can obtain a completely new kind of information about ACE structure and function if we use the whole set of mAbs directed to different epitopes on the ACE molecule. When we finished epitope mapping of all mAbs to ACE (and especially, those recognizing conformational epitopes), we realized that we had obtained a new tool to study ACE. First, we demonstrated that binding of some mAbs is very sensitive to local conformational changes on the ACE surface-due to local denaturation, inactivation, ACE inhibitor or mAbs binding or due to diseases. Second, we were able to detect, localize and characterize several human ACE mutations. And, finally, we established a new concept - conformational fingerprinting of ACE using mAbs that in turn allowed us to obtain evidence for tissue specificity of ACE, which has promising scientific and diagnostic perspectives. The initial goal for the generation of mAbs to ACE 30 years ago was obtaining mAbs to organ-specific endothelial cells, which could be used for organ-specific drug delivery. Our systematic work on characterization of mAbs to numerous epitopes on ACE during these years has lead not only to the generation of the most effective mAbs for specific drug/gene delivery into the lung capillaries, but also to the establishment of the concept of conformational fingerprinting of ACE, which in turn gives a theoretical base for the generation of mAbs, specific for ACE from different organs. We believe that this concept could be applicable for any glycoprotein against which there is a set of mAbs to different epitopes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molekuliarnaia biologiia
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To examine whether measurement of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is useful in diagnosing sarcoidosis in undifferentiated uveitis DESIGN: Evaluation of a diagnostic test.
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To determine whether the addition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor to standard therapy in patients with known coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular functi...
The purpose of this study is to determine if patients should stop taking their angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor around the time of their angiogram in order to prevent contrast...
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A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A class of cardiovascular drugs indicated for hypertension and congestive heart failure that simultaneously inhibit both NEUTRAL ENDOPEPTIDASE and ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. They increase the availability of NATRIURETIC PEPTIDES and BRADYKININ and inhibit production of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
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Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...