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Type 1 and 2 diabetes are characterized by a loss of insulin-producing beta-cells. Current treatments help maintain blood glucose levels but cannot provide a cure. As such, a vital target for the cure of diabetes is a way to restore beta-cell mass. The drug metformin can protect cultured beta-cells/islets from hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction and death. Further, treatment of pregnant mice with metformin results in an enhanced beta-cell fraction in the embryos; however, whether this occurs via a direct effect is unknown.
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When administered in early type 2 diabetes (T2DM), short-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT) can improve reversible beta-cell dysfunction and induce subsequent remission of diabetes. However, this re...
Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes, which represents 90% of diabetes cases, is the consequence of an insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction combinat...
In this chapter, we describe the methods used to culture mainly rat pancreatic beta cells. We consider necessary to use this approach to get more information about physiological, biophysical, and mole...
Beta cell replacement strategies hold promise for permanently treating type 1 diabetes. In Cell Stem Cell, Xiao et al. (2018) restore pancreatic beta cell mass and normalize blood glucose in diabetic...
Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) is a retinoic acid receptor gene that has been shown to play key roles during multiple cancer processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and i...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by progressive deterioration in the function of the pancreatic beta-cells, which are the cells that produce an...
The aim of the study is to show that treatment with Glargine will lead to an improvement in beta cell function especially within times of maximal beta cell stress occurring after a meal. F...
In order to evaluate the difference in beta cell mass in women with and without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), investigators aim to compare quantitative PET imaging of t...
We intend to examine the effect of a commercially available nutritional supplement, Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate(HMB) on whole-body responses to a sugar load.
The purpose of this study is to characterise beta cell function in subjects who despite taking part in a diabetes prevention program (life style intervention with diet and exercise) exhibi...
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A precursor to the AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN (beta/A4). Alterations in the expression of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (ABPP) gene, located on chromosome 21, plays a role in the development of the neuropathology common to both ALZHEIMER DISEASE and DOWN SYNDROME. ABPP is associated with the extensive extracellular matrix secreted by neuronal cells. Upon cleavage, this precursor produces three proteins of varying amino acid lengths: 695, 751, and 770. The beta/A4 (695 amino acids) or beta-amyloid protein is the principal component of the extracellular amyloid in senile plaques found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DOWN SYNDROME and, to a limited extent, in normal aging.
DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...