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OBJECTIVE To determine the physiochemical properties and pharmacokinetics of 3 midazolam gel formulations following buccal administration to dogs. ANIMALS 5 healthy adult hounds. PROCEDURES In phase 1 of a 2-phase study, 2 gel formulations were developed that contained 1% midazolam in a poloxamer 407 (P1) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (H1) base and underwent rheological and in vitro release analyses. Each formulation was buccally administered to 5 dogs such that 0.3 mg of midazolam/kg was delivered. Each dog also received midazolam hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, IV). There was a 3-day interval between treatments. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 8 hours after drug administration for determination of plasma midazolam concentration and pharmacokinetic analysis. During phase 2, a gel containing 2% midazolam in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose base (H2) was developed on the basis of phase 1 results. That gel was buccally administered such that midazolam doses of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg were delivered. Each dog also received midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, IV). All posttreatment procedures were the same as those for phase 1. RESULTS The H1 and H2 formulations had lower viscosity, greater bioavailability, and peak plasma midazolam concentrations that were approximately 2-fold as high, compared with those for the P1 formulation. The mean peak plasma midazolam concentration for the H2 formulation was 187.0 and 106.3 ng/mL when the midazolam dose administered was 0.6 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that buccal administration of gel formulations might be a viable alternative for midazolam administration to dogs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of veterinary research
OBJECTIVE To compare sedation in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) after intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol. ANIMALS 9 healthy adult cockatiels. PROCEDURES A randomized,...
Apneic oxygenation via the oral route using a buccal device extends the safe apnea time in most but not all obese patients. Apneic oxygenation techniques are most effective when tracheal oxygen concen...
The use of human generic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations in veterinary medicine is currently lacking supportive evidence. This pilot study was conducted to determine preliminary pharmacokinet...
Amenamevir (formerly ASP2151) is a helicase-primase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of herpesvirus infection. Amenamevir is both a substrate and inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Three...
Etilefrine hydrochloride (ET-HCl) is used in the treatment of hypotension. Dosage forms of orally administered tablets and parenteral injections are clinically available, but exhibit unfavorable chara...
The goal of this study is to prove that intramuscular midazolam is more effective than buccal midazolam in cessation of seizure activity with comparable side effects.
Currently Midazolam sedation is the standard of care for minor invasive procedures in pediatric patients; its use is restricted to two routes of administration for this purpose oral and in...
CP-690,550 and midazolam are metabolized by similar enzymes in the liver. This study is designed to assess whether co-administration of CP-690,500 and midazolam will effect the metabolism ...
A clinical study in healthy male subjects to investigate whether the administration of ID-082 can affect the fate in the body (amount and time of presence in the blood) of midazolam.
The purpose of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of midazolam given alone and midazolam given after multiple oral doses of 40 mg ridaforolimus.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A self-evaluation of health status.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...