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Sperm competition may select for male reproductive traits that influence female mating or oviposition rate. These traits may induce fitness costs to the female; however, they may be costly for the males as well as any decrease in female fitness also affects male fitness. Male adaptations to sperm competition manipulate females by altering not only female behaviour or physiology, but also female morphology. In orb-weaving spiders, mating may entail mutilation of external structures of the female genitalia, which prevents genital coupling with subsequent males. Here, we present a game theoretical model showing that external female genital mutilation is favoured even under relatively high costs of mutilation, and that it is favoured by a high number of mate encounters per female and last-male sperm precedence.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Royal Society open science
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the ritualistic removal of parts of the external female genitalia. The extent of mutilation as well as the age at which it is performed vary depending on ethnicity. ...
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a cultural practice defined as the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for nontherapeutic indications. Due to changing patterns of migration, c...
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a global public health issue. Women in the UK are at risk of FGM and its adverse health consequences but little is known about its practice. Since 1985 it has been a...
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has no medical benefits and is associated with serious health complications. FGM/C including medicalization is illegal in Kenya. Capacity building for nurse-m...
Some male spiders exhibit female genital mutilation behaviour (FGM) by removing the female genital appendage (scape) to control the mating frequency of females. Female spiders have two, i.e. right and...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether imiquimod creams are effective in treating external genital warts (EGW). The secondary objective of this study is to provide information o...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether imiquimod creams are effective in treating external genital warts (EGW). The secondary objective of this study is to provide information ...
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical response of the non-ablative radiofrequency (RF) in the outcome cosmetic female external genital and its effect in the sexual f...
HIV is found in both the blood and the genital tract. This study will compare the levels and types of HIV found in the blood with the levels and types of HIV found in the female genital t...
Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related water-transmitted parasitic disease affecting more that 200 million people world wide. Infection with Schistosoma haematobium may cause Female Genital ...
A condition of sexual ambiguity in which the individual (pseudohermaphrodite) possesses gonadal tissue of one SEX but exhibits external PHENOTYPE of the opposite sex. Female pseudohermaphroditism is an individual with XX karyotype, normal development of OVARIES and internal reproductive tract, but with ambiguous or virilized external GENITALIA. Male pseudohermaphroditism is characterized by the presence of a Y CHROMOSOME and TESTES, but the genital tract and external genitalia are ambiguous or completely female.
A familial form of PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.
Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).