Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The mammary gland regulates maternal metabolism during lactation. Numerous factors within the tissue send signals to shift nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Serotonin is a monoamine that has been well documented to regulate several aspects of lactation among species. Maintenance of maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation is a highly evolved process that is elegantly regulated by the interaction of the mammary gland with the bone, gut, and kidney tissues. It is well documented that dietary calcium is insufficient to maintain maternal calcium concentrations during lactation, and mammals must rely on bone resorption to maintain normocalcemia. Our recent work focused on the ability of the mammary gland to function as an accessory parathyroid gland during lactation. It was demonstrated that serotonin acts to stimulate parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the mammary gland during lactation. The main role of mammary-derived PTHrP during mammalian lactation is to stimulate bone resorption to maintain maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation. In addition to regulating PTHrP, it was shown that serotonin appears to directly affect calcium transporters and pumps in the mammary gland. Our current working hypothesis regarding the control of calcium during lactation is as follows: serotonin directly stimulates PTHrP production in the mammary gland through interaction with the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Simultaneously, serotonin directly increases calcium movement into the mammary gland and, subsequently, milk. These 2 direct actions of serotonin combine to induce a transient maternal hypocalcemia required to further stimulate PTHrP production and calcium mobilization from bone. Through these 2 routes, serotonin is able to improve maternal calcium concentrations. Furthermore, we have shown that Holstein and Jersey cows appear to regulate calcium in different manners and also respond differently to serotonergic stimulation of the calcium pathway. Our data in rodents and cows indicate that serotonin and calcium are working through a unique feedback loop with PTHrP during lactation to regulate milk calcium and maternal calcium homeostasis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of animal science
Calcium metabolism changes dramatically during pregnancy and lactation because offspring needs a supply of calcium. Approximately 30g of calcium, which passes through the placenta, is accumulated in a...
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) affects many physiological functions because it is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and regulation of lactation in dairy cows. This ...
To meet the fetus's calcium demand in the 3rd trimester as much as 300~500 mg/day, intestinal calcium absorption in pregnant women is upregulated, without comparable increase in bone resorption. On th...
The well-known neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) not only regulates sleep and mood in humans and animals but may also play important roles in modulating growth, development, and defense...
A known biological role of casein micelles is to transport calcium from mother to young and provide amino acids for growth and development. Previous reports demonstrated that modified casein micelles ...
This study aims to determine if treatment with an SSRI antidepressant medication, paroxetine, is associated with cellular calcium response to serotonin, platelet serotonin receptors, and i...
To determine the roles of insulin, lipids, body weight and ion transport in blood pressure regulation.
Studies have shown that lactation is associated with a loss of bone density from four to seven percent at the spine and hip among women who lactate for six months. Decline in bone density ...
The purpose of this study is to determine in a preliminary manner whether successful therapy of hot flashes can be associated with changes in the serotonin transporter in the brain. The se...
The purpose of the study is to assess the safety and determine the effects of the hormone prolactin on lactation (breast milk production).
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
A stromal interaction molecule that functions in the regulation of calcium influx following depletion of intracellular calcium in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It translocates to the plasma membrane upon calcium depletion where it activates the CALCIUM RELEASE ACTIVATED CALCIUM CHANNEL ORAI1.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of medications that are effective at easing depression symptoms. SNRIs are also sometimes used to treat other conditions such as anxiety and nerve pain. How SNRIs work Serotonin (se...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...