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Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices, and are engaged in heparin-binding growth factor-related signal transduction. Thus, changes in the amounts, structures, and chain lengths of heparan sulfate have profound effects on aspects of cell growth controlled by heparin-binding growth factors such as FGF2. Exostosin glycosyltransferases (EXT1, EXT2, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3) control heparan sulfate biosynthesis, and the expression levels of their genes regulate the amounts, chain lengths, and sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate. Unlike EXT1, EXT2, and EXTL3, EXTL2 functions chain termination of heparan sulfate. Here, we examined the importance of EXTL2 in FGF2-dependent signaling.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta
FGF2 is exported from cells by an unconventional secretory mechanism. Here, we directly visualized individual FGF2 membrane translocation events at the plasma membrane using live cell TIRF microscopy....
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Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
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A fibrillin (FBN1) that functions as a structural support protein for MICROFIBRILS. It also regulates the maturation of OSTEOBLASTS by controlling the availability and concentration of TGF-BETA and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. Mutations in the FBN1 gene are associated with MARFAN SYNDROME.
A glycogen synthase kinase-3 type enzyme that functions in ENERGY METABOLISM; EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; and NEUROGENESIS. It is also involved in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS and regulates cell growth and proliferation as a component of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY and other signaling pathways. Certain polymorphisms in the GSK3B gene have been associated with PARKINSON DISEASE; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.