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Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices, and are engaged in heparin-binding growth factor-related signal transduction. Thus, changes in the amounts, structures, and chain lengths of heparan sulfate have profound effects on aspects of cell growth controlled by heparin-binding growth factors such as FGF2. Exostosin glycosyltransferases (EXT1, EXT2, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3) control heparan sulfate biosynthesis, and the expression levels of their genes regulate the amounts, chain lengths, and sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate. Unlike EXT1, EXT2, and EXTL3, EXTL2 functions chain termination of heparan sulfate. Here, we examined the importance of EXTL2 in FGF2-dependent signaling.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta
The functional effects and mechanisms by which fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) controls bovine mammary epithelial cells: Implications for the development and functionality of the bovine mammary gland.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays essential roles in tissue development and homeostasis. Accumulating evidence reveals that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) regulates ductal elongation, ...
It is reported that growth factor (GF) is able to enhance the repair of articular cartilage (AC) defect, however underlying mechanisms of which are not fully elucidated yet. Moreover, the strategy for...
Influenza virus (IAV) infection is a major cause of severe respiratory illness that affects almost every country in the world. IAV infections result in respiratory illness and even acute lung injury a...
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are thought to result from subtle changes in neural circuit formation. We used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to model m...
As illustrated by a diverse set of examples in this special issue, multiple mechanisms of protein secretion have been identified in eukaryotes that do not involve the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and th...
The aim of this study is to evaluate inflammatory response as a prognostic factor of atrial fibrillation recurrency after ablation. Inflammatory response will be assessed by double measure...
Studies in animals have shown that beta2-adrenoceptor activation with selective agonists regulates protein metabolism and muscle growth in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue. These effects...
We are trying to understand how insulin (a type of hormone in the body that regulates how the body regulates how one metabolizes protein and carbohydrates) and exercise alter proteins invo...
The investigators are examining the activation of insulin signaling factors in skeletal muscles of human diabetics. The investigators are characterizing the defects in signaling, and are e...
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the lung characterized by intermittent airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, presence of activated inflammatory cells, inflammatory m...
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A Poly(A) RNA-binding protein that negatively regulates EGFR ENDOCYTOSIS. An increased risk for developing AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS 13 is observed in patients who have more than 23 CAG repeats in the ATXN2 gene coding sequence. Larger CAG expansions in the ATXN2 gene occur in SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA 2 patients.
A fibrillin (FBN1) that functions as a structural support protein for MICROFIBRILS. It also regulates the maturation of OSTEOBLASTS by controlling the availability and concentration of TGF-BETA and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. Mutations in the FBN1 gene are associated with MARFAN SYNDROME.
A glycogen synthase kinase-3 type enzyme that functions in ENERGY METABOLISM; EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; and NEUROGENESIS. It is also involved in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS and regulates cell growth and proliferation as a component of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY and other signaling pathways. Certain polymorphisms in the GSK3B gene have been associated with PARKINSON DISEASE; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.