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Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices, and are engaged in heparin-binding growth factor-related signal transduction. Thus, changes in the amounts, structures, and chain lengths of heparan sulfate have profound effects on aspects of cell growth controlled by heparin-binding growth factors such as FGF2. Exostosin glycosyltransferases (EXT1, EXT2, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3) control heparan sulfate biosynthesis, and the expression levels of their genes regulate the amounts, chain lengths, and sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate. Unlike EXT1, EXT2, and EXTL3, EXTL2 functions chain termination of heparan sulfate. Here, we examined the importance of EXTL2 in FGF2-dependent signaling.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta
FGF2 is an essential growth factor implicated in osteoarthritis (OA), and deletion of full-length FGF2 (Fgf2 ) leads to murine OA. However, the FGF2 gene encodes both high-molecular-weight (HMW) and l...
Germ cells are alternative sources for deriving pluripotent stem cells. Because embryonic germ cells (EGCs) possess physiological and developmental features similar to those of embryonic stem cells, p...
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As illustrated by a diverse set of examples in this special issue, multiple mechanisms of protein secretion have been identified in eukaryotes that do not involve the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and th...
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Lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans is due to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the lower extremities, resulting in the stenosis and occlusion of the artery, leading to ch...
The aim of this study is to evaluate inflammatory response as a prognostic factor of atrial fibrillation recurrency after ablation. Inflammatory response will be assessed by double measure...
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The investigators are examining the activation of insulin signaling factors in skeletal muscles of human diabetics. The investigators are characterizing the defects in signaling, and are e...
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A Poly(A) RNA-binding protein that negatively regulates EGFR ENDOCYTOSIS. An increased risk for developing AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS 13 is observed in patients who have more than 23 CAG repeats in the ATXN2 gene coding sequence. Larger CAG expansions in the ATXN2 gene occur in SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA 2 patients.
A fibrillin (FBN1) that functions as a structural support protein for MICROFIBRILS. It also regulates the maturation of OSTEOBLASTS by controlling the availability and concentration of TGF-BETA and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. Mutations in the FBN1 gene are associated with MARFAN SYNDROME.
A glycogen synthase kinase-3 type enzyme that functions in ENERGY METABOLISM; EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; and NEUROGENESIS. It is also involved in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS and regulates cell growth and proliferation as a component of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY and other signaling pathways. Certain polymorphisms in the GSK3B gene have been associated with PARKINSON DISEASE; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.