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Tumour heterogeneity is an important feature of colorectal cancer (CRC) manifested by dynamic changes in gene expression, protein expression, and availability of different tumour subtypes. Recent publications in the past ten years have revealed proteome heterogeneity between different colorectal tumours and within the same tumour site. This paper reviews recent research works on the proteome heterogeneity in CRC, which includes the heterogeneity within a single tumour (intratumour heterogeneity), between different anatomical sites at the same organ, and between primary and metastatic sites (intertumour heterogeneity). The potential use of proteome heterogeneity in precision medicine and its implications in biomarker discovery and therapeutic outcomes will be discussed. Identification of the unique proteome landscape between and within individual tumours is imperative for understanding cancer biology and the management of CRC patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (MCC stands for mutated in colorectal cancer).
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 18q21-qter region of human chromosome 18. The absence of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (DCC stands for deleted in colorectal cancer). The products of these genes show significant homology to neural cell adhesion molecules and other related cell surface glycoproteins.
A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
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The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...