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Bone scintigraphy is key in imaging skeletal metastases in newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Unfortunately, a notable proportion of scans are not readily classified as positive or negative but deemed indeterminate. The extent of reporting of indeterminate bone scans and how such scans are handled in clinical trials are not known. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases up to October 2016. The main outcome of interest was the reporting of indeterminate bone scans, analyses of how such scans were managed, and exploratory analyses of the association of study characteristics and the reporting of indeterminate bone scan results. Seventy-four eligible clinical trials were identified. The trials were mostly retrospective (85%), observational (95%), large trials (median 195 patients) from five continents published over four decades. The majority of studies had university affiliation (72%), and an author with imaging background (685). Forty-five studies (61%) reported an indeterminate option for the bone scan and 23 studies reported the proportion of indeterminate scans (median 11.4%). Most trials (44/45, 98%) reported how to handle indeterminate scans. Most trials (n = 39) used add-on supplementary imaging, follow-up bone scans, or both. Exploratory analyses showed a significant association of reporting of indeterminate results and number of patients in the study (p = 0.024) but failed to reach statistical significance with other variables tested. Indeterminate bone scan for staging of prostate cancer was insufficiently reported in clinical trials. In the case of indeterminate scans, most studies provided adequate measures to obtain the final status of the patients.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)
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A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
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