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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested as the master regulators of adipose tissue formation. However, their role in regulating brown fat functionality has not been resolved. To address this question, we generated mice with inducible brown fat-specific deletions of PPARα, β/δ, and γ, respectively. We found that both PPARα and β/δδ are dispensable for brown fat function. In contrast, we could show that ablation of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo led to a reduced thermogenic capacity accompanied by a loss of inducibility by β-adrenergic signaling, as well as a shift from oxidative fatty acid metabolism to glucose utilization. We identified glycerol kinase (Gyk) as a partial mediator of PPARγ function and could show that Gyk expression correlates with brown fat thermogenic capacity in human brown fat biopsies. Thus, Gyk might constitute the link between PPARγ-mediated regulation of brown fat function and activation by β-adrenergic signaling.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell reports
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TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A transcriptional co-activator for NUCLEAR RECEPTORS. It is characterized by an N-terminal LxxLL sequence, a region that interacts with PPAR GAMMA, and a C-terminal RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF. It increases expression of MITOCHONDRIAL UNCOUPLING PROTEIN to regulate genes involved in metabolic reprogramming in response to dietary restriction and the integration of CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS with ENERGY METABOLISM.
A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.
A peroxisome proliferator that is used experimentally to promote liver tumors. It has been used as an antihyperlipoproteinemic agent.