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Astaxanthin nanodispersion was prepared using whey protein isolate (WPI) and polymerized whey protein (PWP) through an emulsification-evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of the astaxanthin nanodispersion were evaluated and the transport of astaxanthin was assessed using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The astaxanthin nanodispersions stabilized by WPI and PWP (2.5%, w/w) had a small particle size (121 ± 4.9 and 80.4 ± 5.9 nm), negative zeta potential (-19.3 ± 1.5 and -35.0 ± 2.2 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (92.1 ± 2.9% and 93.5 ± 2.4%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves indicated that amorphous astaxanthin existed in both astaxanthin nanodispersions. Whey protein-stabilized astaxanthin nanodispersion showed resistance to pepsin digestion but readily released astaxanthin after trypsin digestion. The nanodispersions showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells at a protein concentration below 10 mg/mL. WPI and PWP stabilized nanodispersions improved the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of Caco-2 cells to astaxanthin by 10.3- and 16.1- fold, respectively. The results indicated that whey protein-stabilized nanodispersion is a good vehicle to deliver lipophilic bioactive compounds like astaxanthin and to improve their bioavailability.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
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The protein components of milk obtained from the whey.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.
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