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Pancreatic cancer is considered as one of the most lethal types of cancer due to its poor prognosis and lack of effective therapeutic approaches. Although many studies have been done on pancreatic cancer, the current treatment methods did not exhibit successful results. Hence, novel strategies are needed for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The microenvironment of pancreatic cancer contains many factors such as inflammatory cytokines and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), which influence the tumor's status. These factors can be upregulated and consequently lead to exacerbation of tumor progression. Understanding the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the function of TAMs in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment might lead to development and improvement of novel strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer and may result in promising treatments for this type of cancer.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cytokine & growth factor reviews
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A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A tumor arising in the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE; SYNOVIAL BURSA; or TENDON sheath. It is characterized by OSTEOCLAST-like GIANT CELLS; FOAM CELLS; pigmented HEMOSIDERIN-laden MACROPHAGES and inflammatory infiltrate. It is classified either as diffuse or localized tenosynovitis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
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