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Annual cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) and HPV (human papillomavirus) testing after stem cell transplant (SCT) is recommended, but the uptake is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of cervical cancer screening in patients with hematologic malignancies. We searched MarketScan Commercial Claims database for women who underwent allogeneic or autologous SCT. The primary outcome was cervical cancer screening, defined as procedures or abnormal results for HPV and/or Pap testing according administrative codes within 2 years after SCT. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted with cancer type, SCT year, age, geographic area, insurance plan, comorbidity, and presence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).The study included 1484 patients; 1048 patients (70.6%) had autologous and 436 (29.4%) allogeneic SCT. Mean age was 52.5 years. Overall, 660 patients (44.5%) had screening within 2 years after SCT, 214 (49.1%) with allogeneic SCT and 446 (42.6%) with autologous SCT (p=0.02). In the allogeneic SCT group, patients with GVHD had a lower rate of screening than patients without GVHD (42.5% vs. 55.4%, p<0.01), and GVHD was associated with lower odds of screening (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.32-0.79). In the autologous SCT group, patients with comorbid medical conditions had a lower rate of screening than patients without comorbidity (36.0% vs. 45.7%, p<0.01). In both allogeneic and autologous SCT groups, older patients had lower odds of screening. Cervical cancer screening rates after SCT are low, particularly in patients with GVHD, who are at significant risk of second malignancies. Future work is needed to develop strategies to increase uptake.
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