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The present study analysed changes in the distribution pattern of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the human colon challenged by adenocarcinoma invasion, using the double-labelling immunofluorescence technique. In control specimens, CART immunoreactivity was found in neurons of all studied plexuses, representing 30.1 ± 4.1%, 12.9 ± 5.2%, and 4.1 ± 1.3% of all neurons forming the myenteric plexus (MP), outer submucous plexus (OSP), and inner submucous plexus (ISP), respectively. Tumour growth into the colon wall caused an increase in the relative frequency of CART-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) neurons in enteric plexuses located in the vicinity of the infiltrating neoplasm (to 36.1 ± 6.7%, 32.7 ± 7.3% and 12.1 ± 3.8% of all neurons in MP, OSP and ISP, respectively). The density of CART-LI nerves within particular layers of the intestinal wall did not differ between control and adenocarcinoma-affected areas of the human colon. This is the first detailed description of the CART distribution pattern within the ENS during the adenocarcinoma invasion of the human colon wall. The obtained results suggest that CART probably acts as a neuroprotective factor and may be involved in neuronal plasticity evoked by the progression of a neoplastic process.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of molecular sciences
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Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
SMOKING of COCAINE.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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