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The concentration of antiretroviral drugs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of many countries has increased significantly due to their widespread use for HIV treatment. In this study, the removal of stavudine and zidovudine under UV254 photolysis or UV254/H2O2 was investigated in a microcapillary film (MCF) photoreactor, using minimal water samples quantities. The UV254 quantum yield of zidovudine, (2.357 ± 0.0589)·10-2 mol ein-1 (pH 4.0-8.0), was 28-fold higher that the yield of stavudine (8.34 ± 0.334)·10-4 mol ein-1 (pH 6.0-8.0). The second-order rate constant kOH,iof reaction of hydroxyl radical with the antiretrovirals (UV254/H2O2 process) were determined by kinetics modeling: (9.98 ± 0.68)·108 M-1 s-1 (pH 4.0-8.0) for zidovudine and (2.03 ± 0.18)·109 M-1 s-1 (pH 6.0-8.0) for stavudine. A battery of ecotoxicological tests (i.e. inhibition growth, bioluminescence, mutagenic and genotoxic activity) using bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri, Salmonella typhimurium), crustacean (Daphnia magna) and algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata) revealed a marked influence of the UV dose on the ecotoxicological activity. The UV254/H2O2 treatment process reduced the ecotoxicological risk associated to direct photolysis of the antiretrovirals aqueous solutions, but required significantly higher UV254 doses (≥2000 mJ cm-2) in comparison to common water UV disinfection processes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of hazardous materials
Nowadays, zidovudine, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir are important components of the second-line antiretroviral therapeutic regimen of National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in China. The ...
Reducing doses of antiretroviral drugs, including stavudine (d4T), may lower toxicity, while preserving efficacy. There are substantial concerns about renal and bone toxicities of tenofovir disoproxil...
The use of the HIV antiretroviral drug stavudine (d4T), a thymidine analogue, is associated with the development of mitochondrial toxicities such as sensory neuropathy (SN). Genetic variation in genes...
Incompatibility studies of antiretroviral drugs, viz., lamivudine (3TC), emtricitabine (FTC), abacavir sulfate (ABC), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), zidovudine (ZDV), efavirenz (EFV) and nevirap...
Disinfection byproduct precursors (DBPs) were removed from raw surface water obtained from two Canadian drinking water treatment plants via adsorption to two regenerable linear engineered TiO nanomate...
To compare stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (AZT) in slowing the progression of HIV disease. To compare the antiviral activity of d4T versus AZT as measured by plasma levels of p24 antigen a...
To make stavudine (d4T) available to patients with advanced HIV disease for whom no alternative antiretroviral is satisfactory. To study the safety and efficacy of two dose levels in a twi...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether uridine supplementation will improve insulin sensitivity and overall carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-positive subjects who are currently un...
The purpose of this study is to compare the safety of didanosine plus stavudine plus nelfinavir (NLF) with that of zidovudine plus lamivudine plus NLF. This study also examines how long th...
To confirm results from a previous study in which the combination of thymopentin plus zidovudine ( AZT ), an antiretroviral agent, slowed disease progression in HIV-infected asymptomatic p...
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 126.96.36.199.
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...
Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription. It is mainly associated with retroviruses. RT inhibitors are widely used as antiretroviral drugs. RT activitie...