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Environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals has received growing attention in recent years. Several studies describe the presence of traces of drugs in water bodies and soils and their impacts on non-target organisms including plants. Due to these facts investigations of the uptake and metabolism of pharmaceuticals in organisms is an emerging research area. The present study demonstrates the analysis of three selected antidepressants (sertraline, clomipramine and trazodone) as well as metabolites and transformation products in a cress model (Lepidium sativum). Cress was treated with tap water containing 10 mg L-1 of the parent drugs. Employing an analytical approach based on HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight or Orbitrap mass spectrometry in MS and MS² mode, in total 14 substances were identified in the cress extracts. All three parent drugs were taken up by the cress and translocated from the roots to the leaves in specific patterns. In addition to this, eleven metabolite species were identified. They were generated by hydroxylation, demethylation, conjugation with amino acids or combinations of these mechanisms. Finally, the inclusion of control cultures in the experimental setup allowed for a differentiation of "true" metabolites generated by the cress and transformation products generated by plant-independent mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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P-glycoprotein, encoded by ABCB1, is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump which exports substances outside the cell. Some studies described connections between C3435T polymorphism T allele and lower P-gl...
Hepatotoxicity may be a concern when prescribing antidepressants. Nevertheless, this risk remains poorly understood for serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs: venlafaxine, milnacipran...
This study compared the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole/sertraline combination (ASC) and placebo/sertraline combination (PSC) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who showed an inadequ...
The distribution of micropollutants in biotic phases of horizontal sub-surface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands was investigated. 88 diverse micropollutants (personal care products, pharmaceuticals an...
Chirality is a primordial subject in modern drug research as well as in pharmaceutical industry and development. Almost all second-generation modern antidepressants are chiral substances; however in t...
The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the test product, 300 mg trazodone hydrochloride (HCl) extended-release caplets (containing Contramid®), when ad...
The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles at steady state of the test product, 300 mg trazodone hydrochloride (HCl) extended-release caplets (containing Contram...
This study was designed to determine if the novel combination of the SSRI, sertraline, and the NRI reboxetine will increase antidepressant efficacy without sacrificing the favorable safety...
The present study has been designed to evaluate the effect of three doses of trazodone (20, 60 and 140 mg), in comparison to placebo, on the QT/QTc interval of healthy volunteers. Trazodon...
Trazodone may help obstructive sleep apnea patients to stick to their therapy, but optimal dosing is unknown. This study looks at what dose of trazodone has the best balance of potential b...
A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...