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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an imbalanced human microbiome due not only to CKD-associated factors such as uremia, increased inflammation and immunosuppression, but also to pharmacological therapies and dietary restrictions. End-stage renal disease patients require renal replacement therapies commonly in the form of hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HD implies the existence of a vascular access, such as an arteriovenous fistula/graft or a venous catheter, whereas PD implies a long-term peritoneal catheter and the constant inflow of peritoneal dialysate. Also, dietary adaptations are mandatory in both therapies. This revision explores the impact of HD or PD therapies on human microbiome. HD and PD appear to be associated with different changes in the gut microbiome, for example a decrease in Proteobacteria relative abundance in HD patients and increase in PD patients. Both therapies may also have an impact on the human microbiome beyond the gut, leading to increased relative abundance of specific bacteria in the blood microbiome of HD patients and increased relative abundance of other bacteria in the peritoneal microbiome of PD patients. HD and PD catheter biofilms may also play an important role in the changes observed in these microbiomes. A more interdisciplinary approach is needed to further clarify the role of microbial groups other than bacteria in all body habitats to allow the complete understanding of the impact of HD or PD on the microbiome of CKD patients. Moreover, strategies that promote a healthy balance of the human microbiome on these patients should be explored.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacological research
to identify Nursing Diagnoses of 5th stage chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis.
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The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Disorder characterized by a wide range of structural changes in PERITONEUM, resulting from fibrogenic or inflammatory processes. Peritoneal fibrosis is a common complication in patients receiving PERITONEAL DIALYSIS and contributes to its gradual decrease in efficiency.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
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Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...