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The consequences of chronic pain and associated disabilities to the patient and to the health care system are well known. Medication is often the first treatment of choice for chronic pain, although side effects and high costs restrict long-term use. Inexpensive, safe and easy to self-administer non-pharmacological therapies, such as mirror therapy, are recommended as adjuncts to pain treatment. The purpose of this review is to describe the principles of use of mirror therapy so it can be incorporated into a health care delivery. The physiological rationale of mirror therapy for the management of pain and the evidence of clinical efficacy based on recent systematic reviews are also discussed. Mirror therapy, whereby a mirror is placed in a position so that the patient can view a reflection of a body part, has been used to treat phantom limb pain, complex regional pain syndrome, neuropathy and low back pain. Research evidence suggests that a course of treatment (four weeks) of mirror therapy may reduce chronic pain. Contraindications and side effects are few. The mechanism of action of mirror therapy remains uncertain, with reintegration of motor and sensory systems, restored body image and control over fear-avoidance likely to influence outcome. The evidence for clinical efficacy of mirror therapy is encouraging, but not yet definitive. Nevertheless, mirror therapy is inexpensive, safe and easy for the patient to self-administer.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira (1992)
To investigate the effect of mirror therapy (MT) in conjunction with a standard physical therapy program on shoulder range of motion (ROM), pain and quality of life in patients with adhesive capsuliti...
Mirror exposure therapy is a clinical trial validated treatment component that improves body image and body satisfaction. Mirror exposure therapy has been shown to benefit individuals with high body d...
Mirror therapy has been proposed as an effective intervention for lower limb rehabilitation post stroke.
The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of the mirror therapy on phantom pain for patients with amputation after vascular etiology. the secondary aim are to measure the impact of t...
The goal of this study is to test whether a combination of cognitive-behavior therapy and mirror training reduces phantom limb pain for veterans with amputations.
Almost everyone who has a traumatic limb amputated will experience a phantom limb - the vivid impression that the limb not only still is present, but also in many cases, painful. Prelimina...
A randomized controlled clinical to examine the effect of mirror therapy on phantom pain and residual limb pain in patients with traumatic transtibial amputations in Cambodia. The study wi...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of using mirror box therapy as a therapeutic technique amongst patients with functional movement disorders. It is hypothesized tha...
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.
Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
A pharmaceutical preparation that combines buprenorphine, an OPIOID ANALGESIC with naloxone, a NARCOTIC ANTAGONIST to reduce the potential for NARCOTIC DEPENDENCE in the treatment of pain. It may also be used for OPIATE SUBSTITUTION THERAPY.
The enhancement of physical, cognitive, emotional and social skills so an individual may participate in chosen activities. Recreational modalities are used in designed intervention strategies, incorporating individual's interests to make the therapy process meaningful and relevant.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Pain is a feeling (sharp or dull) triggered in the nervous system which can be transient or constant. Pain can be specific to one area of the body eg back, abdomen or chest or more general all over the body eg muscles ache from the flu. Without pain ...