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The relief from an aversive event is rewarding. Since organisms are able to learn which environmental cues can cease an aversive event, relief learning helps to better cope with future aversive events. Literature data suggest that relief learning is affected in various psychopathological conditions, such as anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system in relief learning. Using a relief learning procedure in Sprague Dawley rats, we applied a combination of behavioral experiments with anatomical tracing, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and local chemogenetic and pharmacological interventions to broadly characterize the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system. The present study shows that a specific part of the mesolimbic dopamine system, the projection from the posterior medial ventral tegmental area (pmVTA) to the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), is activated by aversive electric stimuli. 6-OHDA lesions of the pmVTA blocked relief learning but fear learning and safety learning were not affected. Chemogenetic silencing of the pmVTA-AcbSh projection using the DREADD approach, as well as intra-AcbSh injections of the dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist raclopride inhibited relief learning. Taken together, the present data demonstrate that the dopaminergic pmVTA-AcbSh projection is critical for relief learning but not for similar learning phenomena. This novel finding may have clinical implications since the processing of signals predicting relief and safety is often impaired in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Furthermore, it may help to better understand psychological conditions like non-suicidal self-injury, which are associated with pain offset relief.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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Process in which individuals take the initiative, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying resources for learning, choosing and implementing learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
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