Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
In chronic kidney disease patients, oxidative stress is generally associated with disease progression and pathogenesis of its comorbidities. Phenyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic solute, which accumulates in chronic kidney disease patients, but little is known about its nature. Although many reports revealed that protein-bound uremic solutes induce reactive oxygen species production, the effects of these solutes on anti-oxidant level have not been well studied. Therefore, we examined the effects of protein-bound uremic solutes on glutathione levels. As a result, indoxyl sulfate, phenyl sulfate, and p-cresyl sulfate decreased glutathione levels in porcine renal tubular cells. Next we examined whether phenyl sulfate-treated cells becomes vulnerable to oxidative stress. In phenyl sulfate-treated cells, hydrogen peroxide induced higher rates of cell death than in control cells. Buthionine sulfoximine, which is known to decrease glutathione level, well mimicked the effect of phenyl sulfate. Finally, we evaluated a mixture of indoxyl sulfate, phenyl sulfate, and p-cresyl sulfate at concentrations comparable to the serum concentrations of hemodialysis patients, and we confirmed its decreasing effect on glutathione level. In conclusion, indoxyl sulfate, phenyl sulfate, and p-cresyl sulfate decrease glutathione levels, rendering the cells vulnerable to oxidative stress.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
There is growing evidence that the accumulation of protein- bound uremic retention solutes, such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, play a role in the accelerated cardiovascular ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant steroid in human circulation, and ACTH is considered the major regulator of its synthesis. Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) and 5-Androstenediol...
This study examined immobilized anaerobic biomass for sulfate reduction using carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole carbon source under batch and continuous fed conditions. The immobilized bacteria with be...
Sulfate ions pose a major threat and challenge in the treatment of industrial effluents. The sample of wastewater obtained from a pigment industry contained large quantities of sulfate in the form of ...
The establishment of a sulfidogenic environment under thermophilic (55 °C) acidogenic conditions was assessed in an innovative structured-bed bioreactor to enhance sulfate removal and acetate produc...
The purpose of this study is to determine if multiple doses of vancomycin over the course of 3 months will perturb the intestinal flora (microbiome) and result in reduced serum concentrati...
To determine the clinical efficacy of indinavir sulfate or placebo in combination with zidovudine ( AZT ) and lamivudine ( 3TC ) in AIDS patients. Protease inhibitors such as indinavir su...
Renamezin Capsule (an oral adsorbent) lowers indoxyl sulfate levels in patient with chronic renal failure. 120 patients with chronic renal failure(baseline serum creatinine:1.5-5.0mg/dl)....
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of multiple doses of intravenous (IV) isavuconazonium sulfate administered daily in pediatric pat...
All women with severe preeclmapsia were given a loading dose of 4 g magnesium sulfate IV followed by the maintenance dose of 1 g/h infusion till the delivery. After delivery, women who rec...
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 220.127.116.11.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 18.104.22.168.
An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 22.214.171.124.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...