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Acute inflammation can exacerbate brain injury after ischemic stroke. Beyond its well-characterized role in calcium metabolism, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(1,25-VitD), has potent immunomodulatory properties. Here, we aimed to determine whether 1,25-VitDsupplementation could reduce subsequent brain injury and associated inflammation after ischemic stroke. Male C57Bl6 mice were randomly assigned to be administered either 1,25-VitD(100 ng/kg/day) or vehicle i.p. for 5 day prior to stroke. Stroke was induced via middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h followed by 23 h reperfusion. At 24 h post-stroke, we assessed infarct volume, functional deficit, expression of inflammatory mediators and numbers of infiltrating immune cells. Supplementation with 1,25-VitDreduced infarct volume by 50% compared to vehicle. Expression of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-1β, IL-23a, TGF-β and NADPH oxidase-2 was reduced in brains of mice that received 1,25-VitDversus vehicle. Brain expression of the T regulatory cell marker, Foxp3, was higher in mice supplemented with 1,25-VitDversus vehicle, while expression of the transcription factor, ROR-γ, was decreased, suggestive of a reduced Th17/γδ T cell response. Immunohistochemistry indicated that similar numbers of neutrophils and T cells were present in the ischemic hemispheres of 1,25-VitD- and vehicle-supplemented mice. At this early time point, there were also no differences in the impairment of motor function. These data indicate that prior administration of exogenous vitamin D, even to vitamin D-replete mice, can attenuate infarct development and exert acute anti-inflammatory actions in the ischemic and reperfused brain.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuromolecular medicine
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A neurotropic agent which reduces permeability of blood-brain barrier to phosphate. It has no vitamin B6 activity.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
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Stroke - Cerebrovascular Disease (CVA)
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