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The host immune response can often efficiently suppress a virus infection, which may lead to selection for immune-resistant viral variants within the host. For example, during HIV infection, an array of CTL immune response populations recognize specific epitopes (viral proteins) presented on the surface of infected cells to effectively mediate their killing. However HIV can rapidly evolve resistance to CTL attack at different epitopes, inducing a dynamic network of interacting viral and immune response variants. We consider models for the network of virus and immune response populations, consisting of Lotka-Volterra-like systems of ordinary differential equations. Stability of feasible equilibria and corresponding uniform persistence of distinct variants are characterized via a Lyapunov function. We specialize the model to a "binary sequence" setting, where for n epitopes there can be [Formula: see text] distinct viral variants mapped on a hypercube graph. The dynamics in several cases are analyzed and sharp polychotomies are derived characterizing persistent variants. In particular, we prove that if the viral fitness costs for gaining resistance to each epitope are equal, then the system of [Formula: see text] virus strains converges to a "perfectly nested network" with less than or equal to [Formula: see text] persistent virus strains. Overall, our results suggest that immunodominance, i.e. relative strength of immune response to an epitope, is the most important factor determining the persistent network structure.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of mathematical biology
Spreading of viral infection in the tissues such as lymph nodes or spleen depends on virus multiplication in the host cells, their transport and on the immune response. Reaction-diffusion systems of e...
In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using enterovirus HY12 as a vector to express an exogenous hemagglutinin (HA)-epitope tag onto the HY12-encoded VP1 protein via a reverse genetic syst...
BK virus (BKV) associated nephropathy affects 1-10% of kidney transplant recipients, leading to graft failure in about 50% of cases. Immune responses against different BKV antigens have been shown to ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating animal disease. A previously developed multi-epitope protein B4 vaccine of the FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O provides safety advantages over inactivated vac...
MITA (also called STING) is a central adaptor protein in innate immune response to cytosolic DNA. Cellular trafficking of MITA from the ER to perinuclear microsomes after DNA virus infection is critic...
The purpose of this study is to investigate T-cell mediated immune responses to HIV-1 and HCV and determine how these responses are affected by HCV treatment and correlates to response. Fu...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of a successful immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Currently, it is believed that the immune system is involved...
The purpose of the study is to investigate the immune response to hepatitis C virus to determine why some people clear the virus and others develop chronic infection. Changes in immune re...
This is a pilot trial to investigate the use of GM-CSF DNA as an adjuvant for peptide vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma. The objective of this study is to determine the safe...
This phase I trial studies the side effects and the best dose of vaccine therapy in healthy volunteers with or without previous exposure to cytomegalovirus. Vaccines made from a gene-modif...
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A heterogeneous, immature population of myeloid cells that can suppress the activity of T-CELLS and NATURAL KILLER CELLS in the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE and ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE. They play important roles in ONCOGENESIS; INFLAMMATION; and INFECTION.
The characteristic properties and processes involved in IMMUNITY and an organism's immune response.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...