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Brain Beta-Catenin Signalling During Stress and Depression.

07:00 EST 22nd February 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Brain Beta-Catenin Signalling During Stress and Depression."

Beta-catenin is a protein with dual functions in the cell, playing a role in both adhesion between cells as well as gene transcription via the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In the canonical Wnt signalling pathway, beta-catenin again plays multiple roles. In the embryonic stage, the regulation of beta-catenin levels activates genes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation. In an adult organism, beta-catenin continues to regulate the cell cycle - as a result over-expression of beta-catenin may lead to cancer. In the brain, dysfunctions in Wnt signalling related to beta-catenin levels may also cause various pathological conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression. Beta-catenin can be influenced by stressful conditions and increases in glucocorticoid levels. In addition, beta-catenin can be regulated by neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Fluctuations in beta-catenin in brain regions under duress have been associated with depressive-like behaviours. It is theorized that the change in behaviour can be attributed to the regulation of Dicer by beta-catenin. Dicer, a protein that produces micro-RNAs in the cell, is a target gene for beta-catenin. Amongst the micro-RNA that it produces are those involved in stress resilience. In this way, beta-catenin has taken its place in the well-studied biochemistry of stress and depression, and future research into this interesting protein may yet yield fruitful results in that field.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neuro-Signals
ISSN: 1424-8638
Pages: 31-42

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.

A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.

A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.

A specific complex of WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY proteins that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent destruction of cytosolic BETA-CATENIN. The complex is disrupted by cell surface binding of WNT PROTEINS, which allows beta-catenin levels to rise to the point where they migrate to the CELL NUCLEUS and activate transcription.

A family of F-box domain proteins that contain sequences that are homologous to the beta subunit of transducin (BETA-TRANSDUCIN). They play an important role in the protein degradation pathway by becoming components of SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, which selectively act on a subset of proteins including beta-catenin and IkappaBbeta.

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