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Caspase-9 is a critical factor in the initiation of apoptosis, and as a result is tightly regulated by a number of mechanisms. Caspase-9 contains a Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD), which enables caspase-9 to form a tight interaction with the apoptosome, a heptameric activating platform. The caspase-9 CARD has been thought to be principally involved in recruitment to the apoptosome, but its roles outside this interaction have yet to be uncovered. In this work we show that the CARD is involved in physical interactions with the catalytic core of caspase-9 in the absence of the apoptosome; this interaction requires a properly formed caspase-9 active site. The active sites of caspases are composed of four extremely mobile loops. When the active-site loops are not properly ordered, the CARD and core domains of caspase-9 do not interact and behave independently, like loosely tethered beads. When the active-site loop bundle is properly ordered, the CARD domain interacts with the catalytic core, forming a single folding unit. Together these findings provide mechanistic insight into a new level of caspase-9 regulation, prompting speculation that the CARD may also play a role in the recruitment or recognition of substrate.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Biochemical journal
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A homotypic protein interaction module of the death domain superfamily. It is composed of a bundle of six alpha-helices that is related in sequence and structure to the DEATH DOMAIN and DEATH EFFECTOR DOMAIN. The Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD domain) typically associates with other CARD-containing proteins, forming either dimers or trimers. CARD domains may occur in isolation, or in combination with other domains in CARD signaling adaptor proteins and initiator CASPASES that function in APOPTOSIS.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.