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In this chapter, we present methods that we routinely use to measure plant root traits in the field and under controlled environmental conditions (using rhizoboxes). We describe procedures to (1) collect, wash, and store root samples, (2) acquire images of washed root samples, and (3) measure root traits using image analysis. In addition, we also describe sampling methods for studying belowground productivity, soil exploration, and root distribution in the first soil layers at the community level (soil coring and ingrowth core method). Because the use of rhizoboxes allows a nondestructive and dynamic measurement of traits hardly accessible in the field, a section of this chapter is devoted to the acquisition and analysis of images of roots growing in rhizoboxes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Measuring the accuracy of a new technique by which root positions can be predicted at the pre-finishing stage of the comprehensive orthoodntic treatment
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Morphological or behavioral traits influenced by various living conditions that a population encounters especially as it pertains to REPRODUCTION and survival of the population (see POPULATION DYNAMICS) such as age at first reproductive event, number and size of offspring, and lifespan.
A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.
Mergers & Acquisitions
Commercial and market reports on mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device and life-science industries. Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A;) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and manageme...