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Hyperphagia triggers and accelerates diabetes, and prevents proper dietary control of glycemia. Inversely, the impact of hyperglycemia on hyperphagia and possible mechanistic cause common for these two metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes are less defined. The present study examined the precise developmental process of hyperglycemia and hyperphagia and explored the alterations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the primary feeding and metabolic center, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and nearly normal body weight. At mid 3 to 4 weeks of age, GK rats first exhibited hyperglycemia, and then hyperphagia and reduced mRNA expressions for anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and glucokinase in ARC. Furthermore, [Ca]i responses to high glucose in ARC POMC neurons were impaired in GK rats at 4 weeks. Treating GK rats from early 3 to mid 6 weeks of age with an anti-diabetic medicine miglitol not only suppressed hyperglycemia but ameliorated hyperphagia and restored POMC mRNA expression in ARC. These results suggest that the early hyperglycemia occurring in weaning period may lead to impaired glucose sensing and neuronal activity of POMC neurons, and thereby induce hyperphagia in GK rats. Correction of hyperglycemia in the early period may prevent and/or ameliorate the progression of hyperphagia in type 2 diabetes.
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Leptin plays a pivotal role in the central control of energy balance through leptin receptors expressed on specific hypothalamic nuclei. Leptin suppresses food intake and body weight and ameliorates h...
Endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been linked to obesity. However, the direct effect of BPA on the hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, which regulate energy...
Tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling agent found in boat paints, is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems. It is rapidly absorbed by organic materials and accumulated in many aquatic a...
Short-term tamoxifen treatment has effects on lipid and glucose metabolism in mice fed chow. However, its effects on metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) and the underlying mechanisms are unclea...
Chronic wounds are a common surgical problem exacerbated by diabetes. A hyperglycemic microenvironment induces inflammation and apoptosis, and plays an important role in vascular endothelial cell dysf...
The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of setmelanotide (RM-493) on weight and other factors in patients with pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency obesity due to rare bi-all...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a once daily subcutaneous (SC) injection of RM-493 in subjects with POMC (propiomelanocortin) mutation on body weight, metabolic fun...
This is a phase II, open-label, 12-month pilot study in 10 patients with silent corticotroph pituitary tumors testing the hypotheses that Pasireotide LAR treatment of patients with silent ...
Emergency Department (ED) patients with severe hyperglycemia will be randomized to two treatment goals: discharge glucose less than 600 mg/dL or less than 350 mg/dL. Randomization is stra...
This study will determine whether exposure to short-term high blood glucose levels impairs exercise-induced adaptations in glucose tolerance, and whether the pattern of high blood glucose ...
Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS.
Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. The two main types of diabetes are: type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes In the UK, diabetes affects approximately 2.9 million people. There are a...