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Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) tend to be older and have a high co-morbidity burden. The impact of co-morbid conditions and sociodemographic risk factors on outcomes in these patients has not been quantified. We evaluated 445 consecutive outpatients with HFpEF, defined as established diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with left ventricular ejection fraction at presentation >40% and no previous left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%. Patients with specific cardiomyopathies, congenital heart disease, primary right-sided disease, valvular disease, or previous advanced HF therapies were excluded. After 2 years, there were 44 deaths and 609 all-cause hospitalizations; of these, 260 (42.7%) were cardiovascular hospitalizations, including HF, and 173 (28.4%) were specifically for HF. The highest attributable risk for hospitalizations was associated with marital status (single, divorced, and widowed had higher hospitalization rates compared with married patients), hypoalbuminemia, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, and renal dysfunction. The proportion of hospitalizations potentially attributable to these factors was 66.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 56.4 to 74.4) for all-cause hospitalizations, 76.9% (95% CI 65.2 to 84.6) for cardiovascular hospitalizations, and 83.0% (95% CI 70.3 to 90.3) for HF hospitalizations. For composite end points, the proportion was 46.9% (95% CI 34.0% to 57.3%) for death or all-cause hospitalization, 45.7% (95% CI 29.3% to 58.2%) for death or cardiovascular hospitalization, and 43.7% (95% CI 24.2% to 58.2%) for death or HF-related hospitalization. In conclusion, among outpatients with HFpEF, most hospitalizations could be attributed to co-morbidities and sociodemographic factors. Effects of HF therapies on hospitalizations and related end points may be difficult to demonstrate in these patients. Multidisciplinary approaches are more likely to impact hospitalizations in HFpEF.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The American journal of cardiology
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A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
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