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The notion and characterisation of fitness landscapes has helped understand the performance of heuristic algorithms on complex optimisation problems. Many practical problems, however, are constrained, and when significant areas of the search space are infeasible, researchers have intuitively resorted to a variety of constraint-handling techniques intended to help the algorithm manoeuvre through infeasible areas and towards feasible regions of better fitness. It is clear that providing constraint-related feedback to the algorithm to influence its choice of solutions overlays the violation landscape with the fitness landscape in unpredictable ways whose effects on the algorithm cannot be directly measured. In this work we apply metrics of violation landscapes to continuous and combinatorial problems to characterise them. We relate this information to the relative performance of six well-known constraint-handling techniques to demonstrate how some properties of constrained landscapes favour particular constraint-handling approaches. For the problems with sampled feasible solutions, a bi-objective approach was the best performing approach overall, but other techniques performed better on problems with the most disjoint feasible areas. For the problems with no measurable feasibility, a feasibility ranking approach was the best performing approach overall, but other techniques performed better when the correlation between fitness values and the level of constraint violation was high.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Evolutionary computation
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A chemistry-based technology in which sets of reactions, for solution or solid-phase synthesis, are used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
A system of safety management (abbreviated HACCP) applied mainly to the food industry. It involves the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of finished products.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.