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The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex. However, it is still difficult to identify cell types in the developing human prefrontal cortex and to distinguish their developmental features. Here we analyse more than 2,300 single cells in the developing human prefrontal cortex from gestational weeks 8 to 26 using RNA sequencing. We identify 35 subtypes of cells in six main classes and trace the developmental trajectories of these cells. Detailed analysis of neural progenitor cells highlights new marker genes and unique developmental features of intermediate progenitor cells. We also map the timeline of neurogenesis of excitatory neurons in the prefrontal cortex and detect the presence of interneuron progenitors in early developing prefrontal cortex. Moreover, we reveal the intrinsic development-dependent signals that regulate neuron generation and circuit formation using single-cell transcriptomic data analysis. Our screening and characterization approach provides a blueprint for understanding the development of the human prefrontal cortex in the early and mid-gestational stages in order to systematically dissect the cellular basis and molecular regulation of prefrontal cortex function in humans.
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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in the medial prefrontal cortex have critical roles in cognitive function. However, whether nAChRs are required for associative recognition memory...
The unique structure and function of the human brain ultimately results from the action of evolution on the human genome. In a recent issue of Cell, Fiddes et al. (2018) and Suzuki et al. (2018) des...
The human motor system consists of several divisions in the frontal lobes. The physiological function of projections from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to the primary motor cortex (M1) re...
NMDA receptor (NMDAr) hypofunction has been widely used as a schizophrenia model. Decreased activation of NMDAr is associated with a disrupted excitation/inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex an...
Estimating differentiation potency of single cells is a task of great biological and clinical significance, as it may allow identification of normal and cancer stem cell phenotypes. However, very few ...
This study investigates the relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and antisocial and aggressive behavior, and risk factors for such behavior. In the double-blind, randomized cont...
The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of magnetic stimulation on the prefrontal cortex. We plan to use low frequency, repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (1 Hz...
This study evaluates the efficacy of 5Hz repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) over Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex on Major Depressive ...
The purpose of this study is to compare two slightly different methods of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
The investigators propose to conduct a pilot feasibility study of single agent afatinib in patients with previously untreated metastatic EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) mutant aden...
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and limbic system as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A family of calcium-independent cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily. They are expressed by most cell types and mediate both homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. Nectins function in a variety of morphogenetic and developmental processes that include organogenesis of the eye, ear, tooth, and cerebral cortex; they also play roles in viral infection and cell proliferation.
A composite area of the cerebral cortex concerned with motor control and sensory perception comprising the motor cortex areas, the somatosensory areas, the gustatory cortex, the olfactory areas, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS; abnormal neuronal migration; and abnormal establishment of cortical organization via neurite extension, synaptogenesis, or neuronal maturation. As well as mutations effecting these developmental processes directly, there are a variety of inborn metabolic errors, such as PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS and mitochondrial and pyruvate metabolic disorders which effect them secondarily and also exhibit these malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay and are often a component of multiple congenital anomalies.
Field of study concerned with age-related changes in BEHAVIOR that occur in human beings over the course of life, from birth to death. It includes all aspects of human growth, including emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personality development.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...