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Immune system activation and neuroinflammation appear to play a key role in the pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar depression (BDD). This study is the first to analyze blood levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) in bipolar disorder patients treated with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (CBX). In this double-blind study, 47 consenting patients with BDD were randomized to receive either escitalopram (10 mg twice/day) + CBX (200 mg twice/day), or escitalopram (10 mg twice/day) + placebo (twice/day). Plasma CRP levels were measured in both patient groups at baseline, week 4, and week 8, and in a healthy control (HC) group of subjects (N = 35) once. Symptoms were rated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17). The CBX group had significantly lower HAMD-17 scores vs. placebo at week 4 (P = 0.026) and week 8 (P = 0.002). Therefore, SSRI + CBX is more effective than SSRI + placebo in reversing treatment resistance and augmenting antidepressant response in BDD. Baseline CRP levels were significantly increased amongst BDD patients versus HC subjects, indicating that CRP may be a useful biomarker for BDD (P = 0.044). No significant differences in CRP levels were measured between CBX and placebo groups at baseline (P = 0.156), but by week 8 CRP was significantly decreased in the CBX group vs. placebo (P = 0.003). This indicates reduced inflammation in CBX-treated patients, and that CRP may be a useful biomarker for monitoring treatment response in BDD patients during SSRI + CBX combination treatment. CRP and IL-6 levels were positively correlated in the CBX group, and CRP levels were positively correlated with BMI.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of psychiatric research
Cognitive and psychosocial impairment has been associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine in bipolar disorder, but gender differences have seldom been studied.
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One of the most common inflammatory markers examined in depression is C-reactive protein (CRP). However, the magnitude of the association between CRP and depression when controlling for potentially co...
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The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...