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Cancer vaccines: translation from mice to human clinical trials.

08:00 EDT 16th March 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Cancer vaccines: translation from mice to human clinical trials."

Therapeutic cancer vaccines have been a long-sought approach to harness the exquisite specificity of the immune system to treat cancer, but until recently have not had much success as single agents in clinical trials. However, new understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms exploited by cancers has allowed the development of approaches to potentiate the effect of vaccines by removing the brakes while the vaccines step on the accelerator. Thus, vaccines that had induced a strong T cell response but no clinical therapeutic effect may now reach their full potential. Here, we review a number of promising approaches to cancer vaccines developed initially in mouse models and their translation into clinical trials, along with combinations of vaccines with other therapies that might allow cancer vaccines to finally achieve clinical efficacy against many types of cancer.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Current opinion in immunology
ISSN: 1879-0372
Pages: 111-122

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.

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Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.

Works about a study where participants are assigned to a treatment, procedure, or intervention by methods that are not random. Non-randomized clinical trials are sometimes referred to as quasi-experimental clinical trials or non-equivalent control group designs.

Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.

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