Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information. Dibutylone concentrations were variable across all specimen types, specifically ranging from 10 to 1,400 ng/mL in postmortem blood specimens. The metabolic profile of dibutylone was mapped by in vitro incubation with human liver microsomes (HLM). Samples were analyzed using a SCIEX TripleTOF® 5600+ quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Data processing was conducted using MetabolitePilot™. Authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver, were utilized for in vivo verification of five HLM-generated metabolites in analytically confirmed cases of dibutylone use. Butylone was confirmed as a metabolite of dibutylone, but issues involving co-ingestion of these two novel stimulants or potential co-existence from synthesis lead to ineffectiveness as a true biomarker. Hydrogenation of the beta-ketone of dibutylone resulted in the most prominent metabolite found in human specimens, and its uniqueness to dibutylone over other stimulants leads to its classification as an appropriate biomarker for dibutylone ingestion. This is the first study to map the metabolic profile of dibutylone, including verification in authentic specimens, confirming metabolic conversion to butylone and identifying biomarkers more useful in forensic toxicological drug testing.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of analytical toxicology
In Germany, intoxications cause the bulk of emergencies in children, to be prevented or attenuated by preventive measures. Therefore, knowledge about intoxications is essential for pediatricians. The ...
When developing a quantitative assay for exogenous or endogenous compounds, guidelines for method validation normally recommend that the biological specimens should be prepared in corresponding authen...
Taxidermied animals provide an important source of information about the natural world, but failure to understand their reality status may result in missed learning opportunities for museum visitors. ...
Leaders are essential in every organization to achieve patient safety and healthy work environments. Authentic leadership is a relational leadership style purported to promote healthy work environment...
To investigate changes in bone metabolism by PET, as well as spatial relationships between bone metabolism and MRI quantitative markers of early cartilage degradation, in ACL-reconstructed knees.
The purpose of this pilot study is to test the feasibility and outcomes of a supportive group-based intervention, Authentic Connections, to be used for nurse leaders at Mayo Clinic, Roches...
In this pilot study, the investigators propose to characterize the pattern of activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in peripheral macrophages of patients with schiz...
The BCB is a tool: - for research in analytical and public health epidemiology, biological research and for the development of data useful for clinical research and therapeutic tr...
A pilot study to assess the safety and tolerability of oral xanthohumol in humans, to identify a biological signature of xanthohumol exposure, and to characterize the role of xanthohumol m...
Despite the fact that dairy products are greatly consumed, it remains today very difficult to determine with a classical blood biochemical test whether a person has ingested a fresh fermen...
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
Locations, on the GENOME, of GENES or other genetic elements that encode or control the expression of a quantitative trait (QUANTITATIVE TRAIT, HERITABLE).
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...