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Cyanobacteria-dominated harmful algal blooms are increasing in occurrence. Many of the taxa contributing to these blooms are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and should be favored under conditions of low nitrogen availability. Yet, synthesizing nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for nitrogen fixation, is energetically expensive and requires substantial concentrations of iron. Phosphorus addition to nitrogen poor streams should promote nitrogen fixation, but experimental results so far have been inconclusive, suggesting that other factors may be involved in controlling this process. With iron potentially limited in many streams, we examined the influence of phosphorus-iron colimitation on the community structure of nitrogen-fixing organisms. In stream microcosms, using microscopic and molecular sequence data, we observed: i) the greatest abundance of heterocyst forming nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in low nitrogen treatments with high phosphorus and iron and ii) greater abundance of non-photosynthetic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in treatments with nitrogen compared to those without it. We also found that comparisons between molecular results and those obtained from microscopic identification provided complementary information about cyanobacterial communities. Our investigation indicates the potential for phosphorus-iron colimitation of stream nitrogen-fixing organisms.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FEMS microbiology ecology
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The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Bacteria that are capable of NITROGEN FIXATION.
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alternative medicine are whole medical systems that did not fit with conventional medicine as they have completely different philosophies and ideas on the causes of disease, methods of diagnosis and approaches to treatment. Although often overlapping, co...