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The use of different natural and/or synthetic preparations of Cannabis sativa is associated with therapeutic strategies for many diseases. Indeed, thanks to the widespread diffusion of the cannabinoidergic system in the brain and in the peripheral districts, its stimulation, or inhibition, regulates many pathophysiological phenomena. In particular, central activation of the cannabinoidergic system modulates the limbic and mesolimbic response which leads to food craving. Moreover, cannabinoid agonists are able to reduce inflammatory response. In this review a brief history of cannabinoids and the protagonists of the endocannabinoidergic system, i.e. synthesis and degradation enzymes and main receptors, will be described. Furthermore, the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids will be outlined. An overview of the involvement of the endocannabinoidergic system in neuroinflammatory and metabolic pathologies will be made. Finally, particular attention will also be given to the new pharmacological entities acting on the two main receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), with particular focus on the neuroinflammatory and metabolic mechanisms involved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
metabolic syndrome (MS) components are independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, major causes of mortality in the world.
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk of dementia by ˜5-fold, however the mechanisms by which T2D increases dementia risk remain unclear. Evidence suggests that the heightened inflammation and oxi...
Both Helicobacter pylori infection and metabolic syndrome present significant global public health burdens. Metabolic syndrome is closely related to insulin resistance, the major underlying mechanism ...
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized nations and is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD continues to...
Obesity is a systemic disease of the white adipose tissue, which has evolved into a global epidemic. It is associated with a plethora of adiopcyte hormonal (adipokine) imbalances, dysregulation of the...
Metabolic syndrome, labeled as the world's latest epidemic, is the force behind the global epidemic of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardio Vascular Diseases. This emerging epidemic is an i...
Neuroinflammation is increasingly implicated as a potential critical pathogenic mechanism in a variety of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This study will use hybrid PET/MRI imaging t...
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress have been shown to be present in persons with mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), but their effect on disease severity and disease progression is u...
The primary objective of this substudy is to measure the concentration and the regional brain distribution of activated brain microglia/macrophages using the PET ligand [18F]DPA-714 in par...
the investigators make the following assumptions: 1) neuroinflammation in MDD can be measured by the [18 F ] DPA- 714 ; 2) it is accompanied by anatomical and functional changes in the fro...
Opportunity to attain full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstance.
ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A cluster of symptoms that are risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome include ABDOMINAL OBESITY; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...