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Purpose Given the cumulative neurotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin, a shorter duration of adjuvant therapy, if equally efficacious, would be advantageous for patients and health-care systems. Methods The Three or Six Colon Adjuvant trial is an open-label, phase III, multicenter, noninferiority trial randomizing patients with high-risk stage II or stage III colon cancer to receive 3 months or 6 months of FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) or CAPOX (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin). Primary end-point is relapse-free survival. Results 3,759 patients were accrued from 130 Italian sites, 64% receiving FOLFOX and 36% CAPOX. Two-thirds were stage III. The median time of follow up was 62 months and 772 relapses or deaths have been observed. The hazard ratio (HR) of the 3 months versus 6 months for relapse/death was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.32; P [for noninferiority] = .514) and the CI crossed the noninferiority limit of 1.20. However, the absolute difference in 3-year RFS was 1.9% (95% CI, -0.7% to 4.4%). Counter-intuitively, while the RFS curves were similar for stage III (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.26) and for CAPOX treated patients (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.26), they were not for stage II and for FOLFOX treated patients, with HR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.89) and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.46), respectively, favoring the 6 months of treatment. Conclusion The Three or Six Colon Adjuvant trial failed to formally show noninferiority of 3 versus 6 months of treatment to the predefined margin of 20% relative increase. The results depended on the adjuvant regimen and risk. For CAPOX, 3 months were as good as 6 months; for FOLFOX, 6 months added extra benefit. Counter-intuitively, the low-risk patients benefitted more than the high-risk population from the 6-month duration. The choice of regimen and duration should depend on patient characteristics and be balanced against the extra toxicity of longer therapy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
The combination of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil (FOLFOX) has been established as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. However, the safety and efficacy of neoadju...
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A deoxycytidine derivative and fluorouracil PRODRUG that is used as an ANTINEOPLASTIC ANTIMETABOLITE in the treatment of COLON CANCER; BREAST CANCER and GASTRIC CANCER.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Colon or Colorectal cancer is the growth of malignant polyps on the colon, bowel, anus and rectum. Growths in these locations can be benign, and removed by colonoscopy, but they have a risk of becoming malignant. About 10 per cent of bowel cancer...
In a clinical trial or interventional study, participants receive specific interventions according to the research plan or protocol created by the investigators. These interventions may be medical products, such as drugs or devices; procedures; or change...